Linking Transformational Leadership to OCB in Hospitality Industry: the Mediating Influence of Affective Commitment and Work Engagement

Suryandari Istiqomah, Asri Laksmi Riani


This paper aims to examine the process of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) employee in hospitality industry especially in hotel and restaurant. The author test the role of transformational leadership and mediation role of affective commitment and work engagement toward OCB in workplace. Data were colleted from 218 hospitality employees in frontliner area.  Instrument convergen and discriminant validity and hypothesize test using structural equation model - partial least square (SEM-PLS) method with SMART PLS 3.  The result show that transformational leadership have positive effect toward OCB. In addition,  affective commitment and work engagement also show partial mediation effect in relationship between transformational leadership and OCB in workplace. The results showed that transformational leadership has no direct effect on OCB like most other Asian studies. This study found that transformational leadership can influence OCB through the mediating effect of affective commitment and work engagement. These results are expected to enrich the psychological mechanisms that can explain the effect of transformaional leadership on OCB. Future research is expected to be able to explain a more comprehensive flow of transformational leadership, affective commitment, work engagement and OCB.


Keywords: Transformational Leadership; OCB; Affective Commitment, Work Engagement, Hospitality Industry.

Full Text:



Ahmed, N., Rasheed, A., & Jehanzeb, K. (2012). An exploration of predictors of organizational citizenship behaviour and its significant link to employee engagement. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 2(4), 99–106.

Amankwaa, A., Gyensare, M. A., & Susomrith, P. (2019). Transformational leadership with innovative behaviour with PLS-SEM. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(No. 4), 402–420.

Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., & Fletcher, L. (2017). The Meaning , Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Engagement : A Narrative Synthesis. 19, 31–53.

Bhatti, M. A., Mat, N., & Juhari, A. S. (2018). Effects of job resources factors on nurses job performance (mediating role of work engagement). International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 31(8), 1000–1013.

Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1994), Transformational Leadership: Improving Organisational Effectiveness, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Buil, I., Martínez, E., & Matute, J. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 77, 64–75.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row.

Caniëls, M. C. J., & Semeijn, J. H. (2017). Mind the mindset ! The interaction of proactive personality , transformational leadership and growth mindset for engagement at work.

Chênevert, D., Vandenberghe, C., & Tremblay, M. (2015). Multiple sources of support , affective commitment , and citizenship behaviors The moderating role of passive leadership. 44(1), 69–90.

Chou, T. Y., Chou, S. C. T., Jiang, J. J., & Klein, G. (2013). The organizational citizenship behavior of IS personnel: Does organizational justice matter? Information and Management, 50(2–3), 105–111.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An Interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

Demerouti, E., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands – Resources Model of Burnout. July.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement. XVIII(February), 39–50.

Gelderen, B. R. va., & Bik, L. W. (2016). Affective organizational commitment, work engagement and service performance among police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 39(1), 206–221.

George, G., & Joseph, B. (2015). A study on the relationship between Employee engagement and organizational citizenship with reference to employees working in travel organizations. Atna - Journal of Tourism Studies, 10(2), 33–44.

Grant, A. M., Dutton, J. E., & Rosso, B. D. (2008). Giving commitment: Employee support programs and the prosocial sensemaking process. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 898–918.

Gyensare, M. A., Anku-tsede, O., Sanda, M., Okpoti, C. A., Gyensare, M. A., Anku-tsede, O., Sanda, M., & Okpoti, C. A. (2016). Transformational leadership and employee turnover intention The mediating role of affective commitment.

Henseler, J., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Goodness-of-fit indices for partial least squares path modeling. Computational Statistics, 28(2), 565–580.

Humphrey, A. (2012). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors : The Role of Organizational Identification. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 15:4, April 2015, 37–41.

Jain, A. K. (2016). Volunteerism , affective commitment and citizenship behavior An empirical study in India. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(3), 657–671.

Judge, T. A., & Piccol, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755–768.

Karatepe, O. M., & Avci, T. (2016). Article information : The effects of psychological capital and work engagement on nurses ’ lateness attitude and turnover intentions. Journal of Management Development.

Khalili, A. (2016). Linking transformational leadership, creativity, innovation, and innovation-supportive climate Ashkan. Management Decision, 54(9).

Khalili, A. (2017). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(7), 1004–1015.

Khaola, P., & Rambe, P. (2020). The e ff ects of transformational leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour : the role of organisational justice and a ff ective commitment. Management Research Review.

Lee, Y. H., Woo, B., & Kim, Y. (2018). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of affective commitment. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 13(3), 373–382.

Liu, Y., & Cohen, A. (2010). Values, commitment, and OCB among Chinese employees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(5), 493–506.

Ma, X., Jiang, W., Wang, L., & Xiong, J. (2020). A curvilinear relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity. Management Decision, April.

Nohe, C., & Hertel, G. (2017). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(AUG), 1–13.

Organ, D.W. (1988), Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome, D.C. Heath and Company.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Mishra, P. (2011). Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Selection Decisions in Employment Interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 310–326.

Pradhan, S., & Pradhan, R. K. (2015). An Empirical Investigation of Relationship among Transformational Leadership, Affective Organizational Commitment and Contextual Performance. Vision-The Journal of Business Perspective, 19 (3), 227–235.

Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership : Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 329–354.

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.

Schneider, B., & Macey, W. (2019). Driving customer satisfaction and financial success through employee engagement. People Strategy, Vol. 32 No, 23–27.

Shafi, M., Zoya, Lei, Z., Song, X., & Sarker, M. N. I. (2019). The effects of transformational leadership on employee creativity: Moderating role of intrinsic motivation. Asia Pacific Management Review.

Shin, S. J., & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), 703–714.

Stinglhamber, F., Marique, G., Caesens, G., Hanin, D., & Zanet, F. De. (2015). The influence of transformational leadership on followers ’ affective commitment The role of perceived organizational support and supervisor ’ s organizational embodiment. Career Development International, 20(6), 583–603.

Sugianingrat, I. A. P. W., Rini Widyawati, S., da Costa, C. A. de J., Ximenes, M., Piedade, S. D. R., & Sarmawa, W. G. (2019). The employee engagement and OCB as mediating on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(2), 319–339.


Zahoor, A. (2020). Employee proactivity , work engagement , job resources and service recovery performance : a study of structural linkages. Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, 3(2), 153–168.


View Counter: Abstract - 44 and PDF - 49


  • There are currently no refbacks.