Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

Endah Saptutyningsih, Rini Selviana

Abstract


Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income. One of the area which has ecotourism site in Indonesia is Karangkamulyan site, Ciamis District of West Java. There is a tourist attraction that not only offers natural beauty, history and cool atmosphere, it also serves as a place of education and research on the history in the field of archeology. This attraction should receive special attention from the local government so that the tourists and local people also get the benefits. Ecotourism can be classified as possessing public goods-type characteristics, and as such, welfare benefit estimates must utilize non-market valuation techniques. This study employs the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to tourists from ecotourism in Ciamis. The results are compared with contingent valuation analysis of willingness-to-pay of tourists in their current trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis. The result of travel cost method indicates that tourists average travel cost is estimated at no more than one hundred thousand rupiahs. The contingent valuation method concludes that the tourists average willingness to pay in their trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis is are about IDR 6,800 in average.


Keywords


travel cost analysis; contingent valuation; non-market valuation; ecotourism; willingness to pay

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arin, T. and E. Sills. (2001). Developing Tourism to National Parks in the Republic of Georgia, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Badar, Hermawan, (2012),Valuasi Ekonomi Pasca Erupsi Merapi Terhadap Sektor Pariwisata Di Candi Borobudur Jawa Tengah Pendekatan Travel Cost Method, Skripsi, Yogyakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

Cameron, T.A., Huppert, D.D. (1989). OLS versus ML Estimation of Non-Market Resource Values with Payment Card Interval Data. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 17 (3): 230246.

Clawson, M and J.L. Knetsch. (1975). Economic of Outdoor Recreation. Third Printing. The John Hopkins Press. Baltimore.

Cleverdon, R. (1979) The economic and social impact of international tourism on developing countries. Special Report No. 60. Economic Intelligence Unit.

Costanza, R., D'Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., and Van Den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital, Nature, Vol 387, pp 253-260. Damodar, N. Gujarati. 1995. Basic Econometrics. Third Edition. McGraw Hill New York.

Cummings, R.G., D.S. Brookshire, and W.D. Schulze. (1986). Valuing Environmental Goods: An Assessment of the Contingent Valuation Method, Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Davis, L. and Johnson, N. (1987). Forest Management. 3d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill: 790.

Durojaiye, B.O. and A.E. Ipki. (1988). The monetary value of recreational facilities in a developing country: a case study of three centres in Nigeria, Natural Resources Journal 28: 315-328.

Echeverria, J., Hanrahan, M.and Solorzano, R.(1995). Valuation of non-priced amenities provided by the biological resources within the monterverde cloud forest preserve, Costa rica. Ecological Economics.13:43-52.

Fauzi A. 2006. Ekonomi Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan. Jakarta (ID): Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Freeman, A.M., (1993). The measurement of environmental and resource values: theory and methods. Resources for the Future, Washington DC.

Freeman, A. Myrick III. (1993). The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values: Theory and Methods, Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future, Inc.

Forrest ,D., Grime, K., and Woods, R. (2000). Is It Worth Subsidizing Repertory Theatre? Oxford Economic Papers 52: 381397

Freund, J.R. and R.R. Wilson, (1974). An Example of a Gravity Model to Estimate Recreation Travel, Journal of Leisure Research 6 (Summer). 241-256.

Garrod, Guy and K.G. Willis, (1999). Economic Valuation of the Environment: Methods and Case Studies, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.

Haab, Timonty and K.E. McConnel. (2002). Valuating and Natural Resources: The Econometric of Non Market Valuation. Edward Elgar. USA.

Hanemann, M. W. (1984). Welfare Evaluations In Contingent Valuation Experiments with Discrete Responses. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66: 332?341.

Hanley, N.D. (1989).Valuing Rural Recreation Benefits: An Empirical Comparison of Two Approaches. Journal of Agricultural Economics 40(3): 361374.

Hanley, N and Spash, CL (1993). Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment. Edward Elgar: Vermont, 278.

Hufschmidt, M.M., D.E James., A.D. Meister. (1987). Environmental, Natural Systems, and Development, An Economic Valuation Guide. The John Hopkins University Press.

Kaosa-ard, M., D. Patmasiriwat, T. Panayotou, and J.R. Deshazo, (1995). Green financing: valuation and financing of Khao Yai National Park in Thailand, Thailand Development Research Institute, Bangkok.

Karsinah. (2013). Identifikasi Keluarga Miskin di Sektor Pertanian dan Non Pertanian Kabupaten Bantul. JEJAK Journal of Economics and Policy, 6(2): 103-213 doi: 10.15294jejak.v7i1.3596.

Kling, C. L., (1986). Measuring the Recreational Benefits of Environmental Amenities Using Multiple Site Models: An Evaluation of Techniques. University of Maryland, College Park, MD., PhD Dissertation.

Lindberg, K. and R.L. Johnson, (1994). Estimating demand for ecotourism sites in developing nations, Trends 31: 10-15.

Loomis, John and Cooper, Joseph (1990). Comparison of Environmental Quality-Induced Demand Shifts Using Time-Series and Cross-Section Data. Western Journal of Agricultural Economics 15(1): 8390.

Martin, F. (1994) Determining the Size of Museum Subsidies. Journal of Cultural Economics 18: 225270.

Mitchell R. C. and R. T. Carson (1989), Using surveys to value public goods, the contingent valuation method, Resources for the Future, Washington D.C., 1989

Mungatana, E.D. and S. Navrud, (1994). Environmental valuation in developing countries: the recreational value of wildlife viewing, Ecological Economics 11: 135-151.

Lee, C.-K., Han, S.-Y., (2002). Estimating the use and preservation values of national parks tourism resources using a contingent valuation method. Tourism Management 23, 531540.

Legget, C.G., Kleckner, N.S., Boyle, K.G., Duffield, J.W., Mitchell, R.C., (2003). Social desirability bias in contingent valuation surveys administered through inperson interviews. Land Economics 79, 561575

Mill, R. C., & Morrison, A. M. (1985). The tourism system: An introductory. Engelwood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Pearce, D. (1989). Tourist development (2nd ed.). London: Longman Scientific & Technical.

Pearse, P.H., (1968). A new approach to the evaluation of non-priced recreational resources, Land Economics 11: 135-151.

Ready, Richard C. and Navrud, St?ale . (2002). Methods for Valuing Cultural Heritage in St?ale Navrud and Richard C. Ready (eds.). Valuing Cultural Heritage: Applying Environmental Valuation Techniques to Historic Buildings, Monuments and Artifacts. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Rosenthal, Donald H., Loomis, John B., and Peterson, George L. (1984) The Travel Cost Model: Concepts and Applications United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report RM-109, Fort Collins, CO.

Smith, V. K. and Kaoru, Y., (1990). What have we learned since Hotellings Letter? A Meta Analysis. Economics Letters, 32: 267-272.

Tobias, D. & Mendelsohn, R., (1991). Valuing ecotourism in a tropical rain forest reserve. Ambio, 20, 91?93

Togridou, A., Hovardas, T., Pantis, J.D., (2006). Determinants of visitors willingness to pay for the National Marine Park of Zakynthos, Greece. Ecological Economics 60, 308319.

Turner, R.K., Pearce, D.W., and Bateman, I.J. (1994). Environmental Economics: An Elementary Introduction. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Ward, Frank A. and Beal, Diana. (2000). Valuing Nature with Travel Cost Models: A Manual. Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA.

Wennergen, E.B., (1964). Valuing non-market priced recreational resources. Land Economics 40: 234-241.

Willis, K.G. and Garrod, G.D. (1991). An Individual Travel-Cost Method of Evaluating Forest Recreation. Journal of Agricultural Economics 42(1): 3342.

Wood, S. and Trice, A., (1958). "Measurement of Recreation Benefits". Land Economics, 34:195-207

Yakin, A. 1997. Ekonomi Sumberdaya dan Lingkungan. Teori dan Kebijakan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan. Jakarta : Akademika Presindo.

Ziemer, Rod F., Musser, Wesley N., and Hill, R. Carter. (1980). Recreation Demand Equations: Functional Form and Consumer Surplus. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 62: 136141.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/jejak.v10i1.9134

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.