Bourdieu and Media Theory: Explaining Media’s Changes and Continuities in The Post Authoritarian Countries

Wijayanto Wijayanto

Abstract


What happens to the media after the regime changes from authoritarian to the democratic system? Would the media also change accordingly and automatically become free after the regime’s change? Furthermore, what are the forces within and outside the media that influence these changes? This paper aims to review the exiting literatures in the post authoritarian Latin America and Southeast Asia to answer the questions. As a method, this study conducts a critical literature review. This study found that there is agreement among scholars that regime’s change didn’t automatically lead to more free reporting. However, debate is going on about what factors influence the degree of change or continuity with regard to media freedom in post-authoritarian settings. In this regard, scholars have been divided to a theoretical dichotomy. In one hand, there are groups of scholars who believe that political economy factors are the main factors that influence degrees of media freedom. In another hand, there are scholars who believe that cultural factors are more influential. Borrowing the theory of Pierre Bourdie, French sociologists who also concern about this issue, the paper argues that his theory on media’ change can be used as a theoretical framework to examine the media’s changes and overcome the existing theoretical dichotomies.

Keywords


Bourdieu; Media; Changes; Continuities; Post Authoritarian Countries

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alves, R. C. (2005). From lapdog to watchdog: The role of the press in Latin America's democratization (pp. 181-201). In H. De Burgh (Ed.) Making journalists: Diverse models, global issues. London: Routledge.

Andres, N. (2016). Media-elite interactions in post-authoritarian Indonesia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Murdoch University, Murdoch.

Atmakusumah. (2009). Tuntutan Zaman: Kebebasan Pers dan Eskpresi [Demand of the Era: Freedom of Press and Expression]. Jakarta: Spasi & VHR Book, Yayasan Tifa.

Benavidez, J. L. (2000). Gacetilla: A keyword for a revisionist approach to the political economy of Mexico’s print news media. Media, Culture and Society, 22(1), 85–104.

Benson, R. (1998). Field theory in comparative context: A new paradigm for media studies. Theory and society, 28(3), 463-498.

Benson, R. (2005). Mapping field variation: Journalism in France and the United States. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 85-112). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Benson, R. (2006). News media as a "journalistic field": What Bourdieu adds to new institutionalism, and vice versa. Political Communication, 23(2), 187-202.

Benson, R., & Neveu, E. (2005). Introduction: field theory as a work in progress. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 1-25). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1998). On television. New York: New Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2005). The political field, the social science field, and the journalistic field. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 29-47). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bustamante, C. G & Relly, J. E. (2014). Journalism in times of violence: Social media use by US and Mexican journalists working in Northern Mexico. Digital Journalism, 2(4), 507-523. doi: 10.1080/21670811.2014.882067

Champagne, P. (2005). “The double dependency”: The journalistic field between politics and markets. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 48-63). Cambridge: Polity Press.

De Burgh, H. (2000). Investigative journalism: Context and practice. London: Routledge.

Deloire, C. & Hugo S. (1996). Handbook for journalists during elections. Paris: Reporters Without Borders for Freedom of Information and Organization Internationale de Francophonie.

Dhakidae, D. (1991). The State, the rise of capital and the fall of political journalism (Unpublished doctoral dissertation], Cornell University, NY.

Djaeng, J. (2013). Kompas business philosophy: Thoughts and philosophy of two Kompas founders. Bogor: Buku Litera.

Duval, J. (2005). Economic journalism in France. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 135-155). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ferreira, L. (2006). Centuries of silence: The story of Latin American journalism. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Fromson, M. (1996). Mexico’s struggle for a free press. In R. Cole (Ed.) Communication in Latin America: Journalism, mass media and society. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

Geertz, C. (1960). The Religion of Java. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

George, C. (2012). Freedom from the press: Journalism and state power in Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press.

George, C. (2016). Hate spin: The manufacture of religious offense and its threat to democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hallin, D. C. (2005). Field theory, differentiation theory, and comparative media research. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 48-63). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hanitzsch, T. (2005). Journalist in Indonesia: Educated but tamed watchdogs. Journalism Studies, 6(4), 493-508.

Hanitzsch, T. (2006). Mapping journalism culture: A theoretical taxonomy and case studies from Indonesia. Asian Journal of Communication, 16(2), 169-186.

Hanitzsch, T. (2011). Populist disseminators, detached watchdogs, critical change agents and opportunist facilitators: Professional milieus, the journalistic field and autonomy in 18 countries. International Communication Gazette, 73(6) 477–494.

Haryanto, I. (2011). Media ownership and its implications for journalists and journalism in Indonesia. In K. Sen & D. T. Hill (Eds.), Politics and the media in twenty-first century Indonesia: Decade of Democracy (pp. 104-118). New York: Routledge.

Heryanto, A. & Hadiz, V. R. (2005). Post-authoritarian Indonesia. Critical Asian Studies, 37(2), 251-275.

Hesmondhalgh, D. (2006). Bourdieu, the media and cultural production. Media, Culture & Society, 28(2), 211–231.

Hill, D. T. (1994). The Press in New Order Indonesia. Perth: University of Western Australia in Association with Asia Research Institute on Social, Political and Economic Change.

Hill, D. T. (2007). Maneuvers in Manado: Media and politics in regional Indonesia. South East Asia Research, 15(1), 5-28.

Hopmann, N.D Aelts, P.V & Legnante, G. (2011). Political balance in the news: A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings. Journalism, 13(2), 240-257.

Hsieh, H., & Shannon, S.E. (2005).Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288. doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687.

Hughes, S. & Lawson, C. (2005). The barriers to media opening in Latin America. Political Communication, 22(1), 9-25.

Hughes, S. (2006). Newsrooms in conflict: journalism and the democratization of Mexico. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburg.

Ida, R. (2011). Reorganization of media power in post-authoritarian Indonesia: Ownership, power and influence of local entrepreneurs. In K. Sen and D. T. Hill (Eds.), Politics and the media in twenty-first century Indonesia: Decade of democracy (pp. 13-25). New York: Routledge.

Ismail, A., Ahmad, M. K. & Mustaffa C. S. 2014. Conceptualization of investigative journalism: The perspectives of Malaysian media practitioners, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,155, 165-170.

Jay, R. R. (1969). Javanese Villagers: Social Relations in Rural Modjokuto. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Jensen, R. (1992). Fighting objectivity: The illusion of journalistic neutrality in coverage of the Persian gulf war. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 16(1), 20-32.

Keller, A. (2009). Tantangan Dari Dalam, Otonomi Redaksi di 4 Media Cetak Nasional Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika [Challenges from within, Editorial autonomy in 4 printing national media: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika]. Jakarta: FES Indonesia Office.

Klinenberg, E. (2005). Channeling into the journalistic field: Youth activism and the media justice movement. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 174-194). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lang, J. S. (2016). Foreign policy and the media: The US in the eyes of the Indonesian press. London: MacMillan.

Lavieri, O. (1996). The media in Argentina: Struggling with the absence of a democratic tradition. Latin America: Journalism, mass media and society, 183-198.

Leavy, P. (2011). Oral history: Understanding qualitative research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, O. H. (1971). Indonesian government and press during guided democracy. Zug Switzerland: Inter Documentation.

Lim, M. (2011). @Crossroad: Democratization and corporatization of media in Indonesia. Arizona: Arizona State University and Ford Foundation.

Lim, M. (2012). The league of thirteen: Media concentration in Indonesia. Arizona: Arizona State University and Ford Foundation.

Lim, M. (2017). Freedom to hate: social media, algorithmic enclaves, and the rise of tribal nationalism in Indonesia. Critical Asian Studies, 49(3), 411-427.

Marchetti, D. (2005). Subfield of specialized journalism. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 64-84). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Marliére, P. (1998). The rules of the journalistic field: Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to the sociology of the media. European Journal of Communication. 13(2), 219-234.

Marliére, P. (2000). The impact of market journalism: Pierre Bourdieu on the media. The Sociological Review, 49 (S1), 199-211.

Marquez-Ramirez, M. (2012). Change or continuity: The culture and practices of Journalism in Mexico(2000–2007) (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Goldsmiths University, London.

Massey, B. L. & Chang, L. A. (2002). Locating Asian values in Asian journalism: A content analysis of web newspapers. Journal of Communication, 52(4), 987-1003.

Maton, K. (2008). Habitus. In M. Grenfell (Ed.), Pierre Bourdieu Key Concepts (49-66). Stocksfield: Acumen Publishing.

McCargo, D. (2003). Media and politics in Pacific Asia. London: Routledge Curzon.

McLeod, Ross H. (2000). Suharto’s Indonesia: A Better Class of Corruption. Agenda, 7(2), 99-112.

Mulder, N. (1978). Mysticism and everyday life in contemporary Java. Singapore: Singapore University Press.

Nugroho, Y., Putri, D. A. & Lakshmi, S. (2012). Memetakan Lansekap Industri Media Kontemporer di Indonesia [Mapping the landscape of the media industry in contemporary Indonesia]. Jakarta: Centre for Innovation Policy and Governance (CIPG) and HIVOS.

Pintak, L. & Setiyono, B. (2011). The mission of Indonesian journalism: Balancing democracy, development, and Islamic values. International Journal of Press/Politics 16(2), 185– 209.

Pinto, J. G. (2009). Diffusing and translating watchdog journalism: Organizational response of Argentine media. Media History, 15(1), 1-16.

Pontoh, C. H. (2013). Amanat Hati Nurani Karyawan [The mandate of worker’s conscience]. In B. Triharyanto & F. Salam (Eds.) Dapur Media Antologi Liputan Media di Indonesia [The media’s kitchen: The anthology of media reportage in Indonesia] (pp. 19-42) Jakarta: Pantau.

Potter, D. (2016). Handbook of independent journalism. Bureau of International Information Program: US Department of State.

Reeve, D. (1987). Golkar of Indonesia: An alternative to the party system. New York: Oxford University Press.

Robison, R. & Hadiz, V. R. (2004). Reorganizing power in Indonesia: the politics of oligarchy in an age of markets. New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

Romano, A. (2003). Politics and the Press In Indonesia : Understanding an evolving political culture. London: Routledge.

Romano, A. (2005). Asian journalism: news, development and the tides of liberalization and technology. In A. Romano and M. Bromley. Journalism and Democracy in Asia (pp. 15-28). London: Routledge.

Roosa, J. (2006). Pretext for mass murder: The September 30th movement and Suharto's coup d’état in Indonesia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Sambrook R. J. (2012). Delivering trust: Impartiality and objectivity in the digital age (Working Paper). Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford.

Schudson, M. (1989). The sociology of news production. Media, Culture, Society, 11(3), 263-282.

Schudson, M. (2005). Autonomy from what? In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.) Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 124-223). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Schultz, I. (2007). The journalistic gut feeling: journalistic doxa, news habitus and orthodox news values. Journalism Practice, 1(2), 190-207.

Semetko, H. A. (2010). Election campaigns, partisan balance, and the news media. In P. Norris (Ed.) Public sentinel: Media and governance reform. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Siebert, F, T. Peterson, and W Schramm. (1956). Four Theories of the Press. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Steele, J. (2005). Wars within : The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing.

Sudibyo, A. & Patria, N. (2013). The television industry in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 43(2), 257-275. DOI:10.1080/00472336.2012.757434.

Sudibyo, A. (2004). Ekonomi Politik Media Penyiaran [The political economy of broadcasting media]. Jakarta : ISAI.

Sularto, St & Harianto S. (2016). Kompas way: Jakob’s legacy. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Sularto, St. (2007). Kompas: Menulis Dari Dalam [Writing from within]. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Sularto, St. (2011). Syukur Tiada Akhir, Jejak Langkah Jakob Oetama [Endless gratitude, footsteps of Jakob Oetama]. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Sularto, St. (2013). Mengembangkan Indonesia Kecil [Developing the miniature of Indonesia]. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Suseno, F. M. (1997). Javanese ethics and world-view: The Javanese idea of the good life. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Tapsell, R. (2012). Old tricks in a new era: Self-censorship in Indonesian journalism, Asian Studies Review, 36(2), 227–245.

Tapsell, R. (2017). Media power in Indonesia. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Tekwani, S. (2008). Media and conflict in Asia. In S. Tekwani (Ed.) Media and Conflict Reporting in Asia. Singapore: Asian Media Information and Communication Centre (AMIC) and Nanyang Technological University.

Tong, J. (2011). Investigative journalism in China: Journalism, power and society. London: Continuum.

Waisbord, S. R. (2000). Watchdog journalism in South America: News, accountability and democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Whitten-Woodring, J. (2009). Watchdog or lapdog? Media freedom, regime type, and government respect for human rights. International Studies Quarterly, 53(3), 595–625.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/ipsr.v4i2.19513

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Politik Indonesia: Indonesian Political Science Review

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/