The Use of Augmented Reality Blended Learning for Improving Understanding of Food Security

H. Pujiastuti, R. Haryadi


The purpose of this study was to increase students’ understanding of the food security concept. The experimental method was being applied in this research. Moreover, research subjects were divided into two groups, one as an experimental group and another as a control group. The subjects of this study were 100 students at the Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa. Fifty students are guided under Augmented Reality based blended learning system as the experimental group. Another class of 50 students is on the control group, which studies with the conventional blended learning approach. The experimental class obtained 73% of the N-gain result, while control class obtained 50%. Therefore, it can be concluded that using augmented reality can improve the students’ understanding of the food security concept.


blended learning; augmented reality; understanding the food security concept

Full Text:



Acevedo, Miguel F., David R. Harvey, and Florencia G. Palis. “Food security and the environment: Interdisciplinary research to increase productivity while exercising environmental conservation.†Global food security 16 (2018): 127-132.

Al Hamdani, D. S. (2013). Mobile learning: A good practice. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 665-674.

Antonelli, D., & Astanin, S. (2015). Enhancing the quality of manual spot welding through augmented reality assisted guidance. Procedia CIRP, 33(556-561).

Apriyani, L. (2013). Keefektifan Strategi Questions Into Paragraphs (QUIP) dalam Pembelajaran Menulis Karangan Deskripsi pada Siswa Kelas XI SMK YPE Sawunggalih Kutoarjo. Skripsi S1. Yogyakarta. Program Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia, FBS UNY.

Babu, S. C., & Debnath, D. (2019). Bioenergy economy, food security, and development. In Biofuels, Bioenergy and Food Security (pp. 3-22). Academic Press.

Bacca, J. (2015). Mobile augmented reality in vocational education and training. Procedia Computer Science, 75(Vare), 49–58.

Bettencourt, C., Velho, J. L., & Almeida, P. A. (2011). Biology teachers’ perceptions about Science-Technology-Society (STS) education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3148-3152.

Bonatti, M., Schlindwein, I., Lana, M., Bundala, N., Sieber, S., & Rybak, C. (2018). Innovative educational tools development for food security: Engaging community voices in Tanzania. Futures, 96, 79-89.

Borba, M. C., Askar, P., Engelbrecht, J., Gadanidis, G., Llinares, S., & Aguilar, M. S. (2016). Blended learning, e-learning and mobile learning in mathematics education. ZDM, 48(5), 589-610.

Brew, A., & Saunders, C. (2020). Making sense of research-based learning in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 87, 102935.

Briones Alonso, E., Cockx, L., & Swinnen, J. F. (2017). Culture and food security. Available at SSRN 3052252.

Buhl, M., & Andreasen, L. B. (2018). Learning potentials and educational challenges of massive open online courses (MOOCs) in lifelong learning. International Review of Education, 64(2), 151–160.

Bujak, K. R., Radu, I., Catrambone, R., MacIntyre, B., Zheng, R., & Golubski, G. (2013). A psychological perspective on augmented reality in the mathematics classroom. Computers & Education, 68, 536-544.

Buran, A., & Evseeva, A. (2015). Prospects of blended learning implementation at technical university. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 177-182.

Cabero-Almenara, J., Fernández-Batanero, J. M., & Barroso-Osuna, J. (2019). Adoption of augmented reality technology by university students. Heliyon, 5(5), e01597.

Cao, C., & Cerfolio, R. J. (2019). Virtual or augmented reality to enhance surgical education and surgical planning. Thoracic Surgery Clinics, 29(3), 329-337.

Carlson, K. J., & Gagnon, D. J. (2016). Augmented reality integrated simulation education in health care. Clinical simulation in nursing, 12(4), 123-127.

Cheung, S. K., & Wang, F. L. (2019). Blended learning in practice: guest editorial. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 31(2), 229-232.

Clement, M., Vandeput, L., & Osaer, T. (2016). Blended learning design: a shared experience. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 582-586.

Coiduras, J. L., Blanch, À., & Barbero, I. (2020). Initial teacher education in a dual-system: Addressing the observation of teaching performance. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 64, 100834.

Coimbra, M. T., Cardoso, T., & Mateus, A. (2015). Augmented reality: an enhancer for higher education students in math’s learning?. Procedia Computer Science, 67, 332-339.

Crofton, E. C., Botinestean, C., Fenelon, M., & Gallagher, E. (2019). Potential applications for virtual and augmented reality technologies in sensory science. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 102178.

de Lange, E., Milner-Gulland, E. J., & Keane, A. (2019). Improving environmental interventions by understanding information flows. Trends in ecology & evolution, 1, 1-13.

Fayomi, O. O., Fayomi, O. S. I., Atiba, O. E., & Ayuba, A. U. (2019). Failure Of The 21st Century Researchers In Solving National Economic Menace: A Necessity. Energy Procedia, 157, 428-434.

Flavián, C., Ibáñez-Sánchez, S., & Orús, C. (2019). The impact of virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies on the customer experience. Journal of Business Research, 100, 547-560.

Fratiwi, N. J., Samsudin, A., & Costu, B. (2018). Enhancing K-10 students’ conceptions through computer simulations-aided PDEODE* E (CS-PDEODE* E) on Newton’s laws. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(2), 214-223.

Gunawan, G., Harjono, A., Sahidu, H., & Herayanti, L. (2017). Virtual laboratory to improve students’ problem-solving skills on electricity concept. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 257-264.

Gupta, P., Mehrotra, D., & Sharma, T. K. (2015). Identifying knowledge indicators in higher education organization. Procedia Computer Science, 46, 449-456.

Hake, R. R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American journal of Physics, 66(1), 64-74.

Han, F., & Ellis, R. A. (2019). Identifying consistent patterns of quality learning discussions in blended learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 40, 12-19.

Hardman, J. (2019). Towards a pedagogical model of teaching with ICTs for mathematics attainment in primary school: A review of studies 2008–2018. Heliyon, 5(5), e01726.

He, H., Han, D., & Dezert, J. (2019). Disagreement based semi-supervised learning approaches with belief functions. Knowledge-Based Systems, 105426.

Hmedna, B., El Mezouary, A., & Baz, O. (2019). How Does Learners’ Prefer to Process Information in MOOCs? A Data-driven Study. Procedia computer science, 148, 371-379.

Hoi, V. N. (2020). Understanding higher education learners’ acceptance and use of mobile devices for language learning: A Rasch-based path modeling approach. Computers & Education, 146, 103761.

Hossain, M., Mullally, C., & Asadullah, M. N. (2019). Alternatives to calorie-based indicators of food security: An application of machine learning methods. Food policy, 84, 77-91.

Huang, T. K., Yang, C. H., Hsieh, Y. H., Wang, J. C., & Hung, C. C. (2018). Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applied in dentistry. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences, 34(4), 243-248.

Hubackova, S., & Semradova, I. (2016). Evaluation of blended learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 551-557.

Ibáñez, M. B., & Delgado-Kloos, C. (2018). Augmented reality for STEM learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 123, 109-123.

Iftene, A., & Trandabăț, D. (2018). Enhancing the attractiveness of learning through Augmented Reality. Procedia Computer Science, 126, 166-175.

Jamali, S. S., Shiratuddin, M. F., Wong, K. W., & Oskam, C. L. (2015). Utilising mobile-augmented reality for learning man anatomy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 659-668.

Jeřábek, T., Rambousek, V., & Wildová, R. (2014). Specifics of visual perception of the augmented reality in the context of education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 598-604.

Jeřábek, T., Rambousek, V., & Wildová, R. (2015). Perceptual specifics and categorisation of augmented reality systems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 1740-1744.

Klentien, U., & Wannasawade, W. (2016). Development of blended learning model with virtual science laboratory for secondary students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 706-711.

Klimova, A., Bilyatdinova, A., & Karsakov, A. (2018). Existing teaching practices in augmented reality. Procedia Computer Science, 136, 5-15.

Knox, J. (2016). Posthumanism and the MOOC: opening the subject of digital education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35(3), 305-320.

Knuth, E., Zaslavsky, O., & Ellis, A. (2019). The role and use of examples in learning to prove. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53, 256-262.

Krasnova, T., & Demeshko, M. (2015). Tutor-mediated support in blended learning. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 166(0), 404-408.

Kuki, Ã., Nagy, L., Zsuga, M., & Kéki, S. (2011). Fast identification of phthalic acid esters in poly (vinyl chloride) samples by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 303(2-3), 225-228.

Laforge, J. M., & McLachlan, S. M. (2018). Learning communities and new farmer knowledge in Canada. Geoforum, 96, 256-267.

Lee, H. Y., Moore, K. C., & Tasova, H. I. (2019). Reasoning within quantitative frames of reference: The case of Lydia. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53, 81-95.

Li, K., & Moore, D. R. (2018). Motivating students in massive open online courses (MOOCs) using the attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction (arcs) model. Journal of Formative Design in Learning, 2(2), 102-113.

Lindner, C., Rienow, A., & Jürgens, C. (2019). Augmented Reality applications as digital experiments for education–An example in the earth-moon system. Acta Astronautica, 161, 66-74.

Makaramani, R. (2015). 21st century learning design for a telecollaboration project. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 622-627.

Matukhin, D., & Zhitkova, E. (2015). Implementing blended learning technology in higher professional education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 183-188.

McCarthy, C. J., & Uppot, R. N. (2019). Advances in Virtual and Augmented Reality—Exploring the Role in Health-care Education. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 38(2), 104-105.

Mehta, R., Sahni, J., & Khanna, K. (2018). Internet of things: Vision, applications and challenges. Procedia computer science, 132, 1263-1269.

Mendívila, E. G., Floresa, P. G. R., Martín-Gutiérrezb, J., & Gintersc, E. (2015). Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education Preface VARE2015. Procedia Computer Science, 75, 1–4.

Maity, A. K., Pratihar, R., Mitra, A., Dey, S., Agrawal, V., Sanyal, S., & Ghosh, D. (2015). Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of alpha and theta EEG rhythms with musical stimuli. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 81, 52-67.

Mikhail, M., Mithani, K., & Ibrahim, G. M. (2019). Presurgical and Intraoperative Augmented Reality in Neuro-oncologic Surgery: Clinical Experiences and Limitations. World neurosurgery. 128(July 2018), 268–276.

Ming, T. S., Sim, L. Y., Mahmud, N., Kee, L. L., Zabidi, N. A., & Ismail, K. (2014). Enhancing 21st century learning skills via digital storytelling: Voices of Malaysian teachers and undergraduates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 489-494.

Miyazoe, T., & Anderson, T. (2010). Learning outcomes and students’ perceptions of online writing: Simultaneous implementation of a forum, blog, and wiki in an EFL blended learning setting. System, 38(2), 185-199.

Morton, C. E., Saleh, S. N., Smith, S. F., Hemani, A., Ameen, A., Bennie, T. D., & Toro-Troconis, M. (2016). Blended learning: how can we optimise undergraduate student engagement?. BMC medical education, 16(1), 195.

Nazarenko, A. L. (2015). Blended learning vs traditional learning: What works? (a case study research). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 200, 77-82.

Nincarean, D., Alia, M. B., Halim, N. D. A., & Rahman, M. H. A. (2013). Mobile Augmented Reality: the potential for education. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 103(0), 657-664.

O’Bannon, B. W., & Thomas, K. M. (2015). Mobile phones in the classroom: Preservice teachers answer the call. Computers & Education, 85, 110-122.

Okimoto, M. L. L., Okimoto, P. C., & Goldbach, C. E. (2015). User experience in augmented reality applied to the welding education. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 6223-6227.

Pujiastuti, H., & Fitriah, F. (2019). Design of interactive teaching materials based on a scientific approach to support junior high school students’ learning: Line and angles. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157(3).6-18.

Quandt, M., Knoke, B., Gorldt, C., Freitag, M., & Thoben, K. D. (2018). General requirements for industrial augmented reality applications. Procedia CIRP, 72(1), 1130-1135.

Robinson, K. M., Price, J. A., & Demyen, B. (2018). Understanding arithmetic concepts: Does operation matter?. Journal of experimental child psychology, 166, 421-436.

Rohayani, A. H. (2015). A literature review: readiness factors to measuring e-learning readiness in higher education. Procedia Computer Science, 59, 230-234.

Sjaifuddin, S., Hidayat, S., Fathurrohman, M., Ardie, R., & El Islami, R. A. Z. (2019). The Development of Food Security Behavior Model through Environmental-Based Learning: A System Dynamics Approach. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(2), 230-240.

Salinas, P., & Pulido, R. (2015). Visualization of Conics through Augmented Reality. Procedia Computer Science, 75, 147-150.

Shu, H., & Gu, X. (2018). Determining the differences between online and face-to-face student–group interactions in a blended learning course. The Internet and Higher Education, 39, 13-21.

Sincer, I., Severiens, S., & Volman, M. (2019). Teaching diversity in citizenship education: Context-related teacher understandings and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 78, 183-192.

Sládek, P., Miléř, T., & Benárová, R. (2011). How to increase students’ interest in science and technology. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 168-174.

Solomon, Y., & Croft, T. (2016). Understanding undergraduate disengagement from mathematics: Addressing alienation. International Journal of Educational Research, 79, 267-276.

Sonntag, D., Albuquerque, G., Magnor, M., & Bodensiek, O. (2019). Hybrid learning environments by data-driven Augmented Reality. Procedia Manufacturing, 31, 32-37.

Sorko, S. R., & Brunnhofer, M. (2019). Potentials of augmented reality in training. Procedia Manufacturing, 31, 85-90.

Stalvey, H. E., Burns-Childers, A., Chamberlain Jr, D., Kemp, A., Meadows, L. J., & Vidakovic, D. (2019). Students’ understanding of the concepts involved in one-sample hypothesis testing. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53, 42-64.

Steinberger, P. (2020). Assessing the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale as applied to prospective teachers in an Israeli Teacher-Training College. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 64, 100829.

Stockwell, B. R., Stockwell, M. S., Cennamo, M., & Jiang, E. (2015). Blended learning improves science education. Cell, 162(5), 933-936.

Suryawanshi, K., & Narkhede, S. (2015). Green ICT for sustainable development: A higher education perspective. Procedia computer science, 70, 701-707.

Syawaludin, A. Gunarhadi, & Rintayati, P.(2019). Enhancing Elementary School Students’ Abstract Reasoning in Science Learning through Augmented Reality-Based Interactive Multimedia. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(2), 288-297.

Taufiq, M., Amalia, A. V., Parmin, P., & Leviana, A. (2016). Design of science mobile learning of eclipse phenomena with conservation insight android-based app inventor 2. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(2), 291-298.

te Pas, E., Wieringa–de Waard, M., de Ruijter, W., & van Dijk, N. (2015). Learning results of GP trainers in a blended learning course on EBM: a cohort study. BMC medical education, 15(1), 104.

Theobald, K. A., Windsor, C. A., & Forster, E. M. (2018). Engaging students in a community of learning: Renegotiating the learning environment. Nurse education in practice, 29, 137-142.

Toulmin, C. (2015). What Can the Social Sciences Bring to an Understanding of Food Security?. In Why the Social Sciences Matter (pp. 111-127). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Tranchant, J. P., Gelli, A., Bliznashka, L., Diallo, A. S., Sacko, M., Assima, A., ... & Masset, E. (2019). The impact of food assistance on food insecure populations during conflict: Evidence from a quasi-experiment in Mali. World Development, 119, 185-202.

Tsai, C. Y. (2019). Improving students’ understanding of basic programming concepts through visual programming language: The role of self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 224-232.

van Laar, E., van Deursen, A. J., van Dijk, J. A., & de Haan, J. (2019). Determinants of 21st-century digital skills: A large-scale survey among working professionals. Computers in human behavior, 100, 93-104.

Vanslambrouck, S., Zhu, C., Lombaerts, K., Philipsen, B., & Tondeur, J. (2018). Students’ motivation and subjective task value of participating in online and blended learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 36, 33-40.

Vanslambrouck, S., Zhu, C., Pynoo, B., Thomas, V., Lombaerts, K., & Tondeur, J. (2019). An in-depth analysis of adult students in blended environments: Do they regulate their learning in an ‘old school’way?. Computers & Education, 128, 75-87.

Wrigley, C., Mosely, G., & Tomitsch, M. (2018). Design thinking education: A comparison of massive open online courses. She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 4(3), 275-292.

Willoughby, D., Evans, M. A., & Nowak, S. (2015). Do ABC eBooks boost engagement and learning in preschoolers? An experimental study comparing eBooks with paper ABC and storybook controls. Computers & Education, 82, 107-117.

Zaslavsky, O. (2019). There is more to examples than meets the eye: Thinking with and through mathematical examples in different settings. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53, 245-255.


  • There are currently no refbacks.