Teacher Learning Management: Investigating Biology Teachers’ TPACK to Conduct Learning During the Covid-19 Outbreak

A. Juanda, A. S. Shidiq, D. Nasrudin


Adaptation of new habits in many aspects of life, including education, is required amid the COVID-19 outbreak. Many countries, including Indonesia, suddenly implement online learning as a realization of social distancing policies. This sudden change in the learning system has become a challenge for teachers. They must be able to integrate technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge to conduct online learning well. Therefore, this study investigates the readiness of biology teachers to face online learning based on their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The purposive survey method was used by distributing questionnaires and conducting online interviews. The questionnaire consists of 30 statements about the TPACK readiness of biology teachers and ten questions about the online learning process during the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 121 biology teachers in West Java, Indonesia, participated in this study. The findings indicate that biology teachers have sufficient TPACK skills in implementing online learning. However, their technological capabilities still need to be improved. The flexibility of place and time, availability of learning resources, and increased independence of teachers and students in using technology are the advantages of online biology learning during the COVID-19 outbreak. Meanwhile, the problems faced by teachers include technical connectivity and student honesty in taking exams in the implementation of online learning. The uncertainty of when the pandemic will end makes this study important to carry out for evaluation and potential improvement of online biology learning systems.


Biology learning; COVID-19; online learning; TPACK

Full Text:



Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Students perspectives. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 1(2), 45–51.

Akyuz, D. (2018). Measuring technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through performance assessment. Computers and Education, 125, 212–225.

Antony, M. K., Paidi, Subali, B., Pradana, S. P., Hapsari, N., & Astuti, F. E. C. (2019). Teacher’s TPACK Profile: The Affect of Teacher Qualification and Teaching Experience. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(1). h

Blömeke, S., Busse, A., Kaiser, G., König, J., & Suhl, U. (2016). The relation between content-specific and general teacher knowledge and skills. Teaching and Teacher Education, 56, 35–46.

Bravo, P. & Cofré, H. (2016). Developing biology teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study : the case of teaching human evolution. International Journal of Science Education, 0(0), 1–28.

Brinson, J. R. (2015). Learning outcome achievement in non-traditional (virtual and remote) versus traditional (hands-on) laboratories: A review of the empirical research. Computers and Education, 87, 218–237.

Buntting, C., Kevin, R., & Campbell, A. (2006). Student views of concept mapping use in introductory tertiary biology classes. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 4, 641–668.

Bunyamin, M. A. H., & Phang, F. A. (2012). Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge among Undergraduate Education Degree Students at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 56(Ictlhe), 432–440.

Bustamante, C., & Bustamante, C. (2019). TPACK-based professional development on web 2 . 0 for Spanish teachers : A case study for Spanish teachers : A case study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 0(0), 1–26.

Canbazoglu Bilici, S., Guzey, S. S., & Yamak, H. (2016). Assessing pre-service science teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through observations and lesson plans. Research in Science and Technological Education, 34(2), 237–251.

Cheng, K. (2017). A survey of native language teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge ( TPACK ) in Taiwan. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 0(0), 1–17.

Ciptaningrum, D. S. (2017). The Development of the Survey of Technology Use, Teaching, and Technology Related Learning Experiences among Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Indonesia. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Learning, 2(2), 11–26.

Daba, T. M., Anbassa, B., Oda, B. K., & Degefa, I. (2016). Status of Biology Laboratory and Practical Activities in some Selected Secondary and Preparatory Schools of Borena Zone, South Ethiopia. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(17), 1709–1718.

Dalal, M., Archambault, L., & Shelton, C. (2017). Professional Development for International Teachers: Examining TPACK and Technology Integration Decision Making. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 49(3–4), 117–133.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement, 14(1), 4–58.

Ekwueme, C., E. Ekon, E., & C. Ezenwa-Nebife, D. (2015). The Impact of Hands-On-Approach on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science and Mathematics. Higher Education Studies, 5(6), 47–51.

Erdogan, A., & Sahin, I. (2010). Relationship between math teacher candidates’ Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) and achievement levels. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2707–2711.

Ferdig, R. E. (2006). Assessing technologies for teaching and learning: understanding the importance of technological pedagogical content knowledge. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(5).

Frey, T. (2008). Determining the impact of online practicum facilitation for inservice teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(2), 181–210.

Fuad, M., Ariyani, F., Suyanto, E., & Shidiq, A. S. (2020). Exploring Teachers’ TPCK : Are Indonesian Language Teachers Ready for Online Learning during the COVID-19 Outbreak ? Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11B), 6091–6102.

Getenet, S. T., Beswick, K., & Callingham, R. (2016). Professionalizing in- service teachers’ focus on technological pedagogical and content knowledge. Education and Information Technologies, 21(1), 19–34.

Giannakos, M. N., Doukakis, S., Pappas, I. O., Adamopoulos, N., & Giannopoulou, P. (2015). Investigating teachers’ confidence on technological pedagogical and content knowledge: an initial validation of TPACK scales in K-12 computing education context. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(1), 43–59.

Graham, C. R., Borup, J., & Smith, N. B. (2012). Using TPACK as a framework to understand teacher candidates’ technology integration decisions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(6), 530–546.

Graham, D. A. (2019). Benefits of online teaching for face-to-face teaching at historically black colleges and universities. Online Learning Journal, 23(1), 144–163.

Hapsari, N., Paidi, Subali, B., Astuti, F. E. C., Pradana, S. P., & Antony, M. K. (2019). The TPACK Profile of Biology Teacher Based on Certification Status: A Case Study in Bantul Regency. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(1).

Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration refrained. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393–416.

Hofstein, A., & Lunetta, V. N. (2004). The Laboratory in Science Education: Foundations for the Twenty-First Century. Science Education, 88(1), 28–54.

Holland, D. D., & Piper, R. T. (2016). Testing a Technology Integration Education Model for Millennial Preservice Teachers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(2), 196–224.

Hsu, C. Y., Tsai, C. C., & Liang, J. C. (2011). Facilitating Preschoolers’ Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(5), 482–493.

Huang, R. (2020). The Chinese Experience in Maintaining Undisrupted Learning in COVID-19 Outbreak. Handbook on Facilitating Flexible Learning During Educational Disruption, 46.

Jimoyiannis, A. (2010). Designing and implementing an integrated technological pedagogical science knowledge framework for science teachers professional development. Computers and Education, 55(3), 1259–1269.

Koçoǧlu, Z. (2009). Exploring the technological pedagogical content knowledge of pre-service teachers in language education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2734–2737.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005a). Teachers Learning Technology by Design. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 21(3), 94–102.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005b). What happens when teachers design educational technology? the development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 131–152.

Koh, J. H. L., & Chai, C. S. (2016). Seven design frames that teachers use when considering technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers and Education, 102, 244–257.

Kozma, R. B., & Vota, W. S. (2014). ICT in Developing Countries: Policies, Implementation, and Impact. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: Fourth Edition. Springer New York.

Leontyeva, I. A. (2018). Modern distance learning technologies in higher education: Introduction problems. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(10), 1–8.

Lestiyanawati, R., & Widyantoro, A. (2020). Strategies and Problems Faced by Indonesian Teachers in Conducting E- Learning System During COVID-19 Outbreak. Culture, Literature, Linguistics, English Teaching, 2(1), 71–82.

Lin, T. C., Tsai, C. C., Chai, C. S., & Lee, M. H. (2013). Identifying Science Teachers’ Perceptions of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(3), 325–336.

Liu, S. H. (2011). Factors related to pedagogical beliefs of teachers and technology integration. Computers and Education, 56(4), 1012–1022.

Liu, S. H., & Lee, G. G. (2013). Using a concept map knowledge management system to enhance the learning of biology. Computers and Education, 68, 105–116.

Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, Sources, and Development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Science Teaching. In Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (pp. 95–132). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Mahdum. (2015). Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) of english teachers in Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5S1), 168–176.

Meschede, N., Fiebranz, A., Möller, K., & Steffensky, M. (2017). Teachers’ professional vision, pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs: On its relation and differences between pre-service and in-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 158–170.

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.

Moghavvemi, S., Sulaiman, A., Jaafar, N. I., & Kasem, N. (2018). Social media as a complementary learning tool for teaching and learning: The case of youtube. International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), 37–42.

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). Contemporary Security Policy COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. In Contemporary Security Policy.

Mutton, T. (2020). Teacher education and Covid-19 : responses and opportunities for new pedagogical initiatives. Journal of Education for Teaching, 00(00), 1–3.

Nawzad, L., Rahim, D., & Wakil, K. (2018). The Effectiveness of Technology for Improving the Teaching of Natural Sciences. Indonesian Journal of Curriculum and Educational Technology Studies, 6(1), 15–21.

Nelson, M. J., Voithofer, R., & Cheng, S.-L. (2018). Mediating factors that influence the technology integration practices of teacher educators. Computers & Education.

Nouri, A. (2014). Dialogic Learning : a Social Cognitive Neuroscience View. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 2(2), 87–92.

Oliver, M. (2011). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators. Learning, Media and Technology, 36(1), 91–93.

Oster-Levinz, A., & Klieger, A. (2010). Online tasks as a tool to promote teachers’ expertise within the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 354–358.

Pamuk, S. (2012). Understanding pre-service teachers’ technology use through TPACK framework. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(5), 425–439.

Paquette, G. (2014). Technology-Based Instructional Design: Evolution and Major Trends. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: Fourth Edition. Springer New York.

Pratama, H., Azman, M. N. A., Kassymova, G. K., & Duisenbayeva, S. S. (2020). The Trend in Using Online Meeting Applications for Learning During the Period of Pandemic COVID-19: A Literature Review. Journal of Innovation in Educational and Cultural Research, 1(2), 58-68.

Polly, D., McGee, J. R., & Sullivan, C. (2010). Employing Technology-Rich Mathematical Tasks to Develop Teachers’ Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(4), 455–472.

Rasmitadila, R., Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A. R. S. (2020). The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 90.

Reimers, F., Schleicher, A., Saavedra, J., & Tuominen, S. (2020). Supporting the continuation of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oecd, 1(1), 1–38.

Rochintaniawati, D., Widodo, A., Riandi, R. & Herlina, L. (2018). Pedagogical Content Knowledge Depelopment of Science Prospective Teachers in Professional Practice Program. Unnes Science Education Journal, 7(2), 119–128.

Sadeghi, M. (2019). A Shift from Classroom to Distance Learning: Advantages and Limitations. Internasional Journal of Reserach in Englissh (IJREE), 4(1), 80–88.

Sadikin, A., & Hamidah, A. (2020). Pembelajaran Daring di Tengah Wabah Covid-19. Biodik: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi, 6(2), 109–119.

Sahin, I. (2011). Development of survey of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1), 97–105.

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P. S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.-Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., & Pusic, M. (2020). Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. MedEdPublish, 9(1), 1–14.

Sang, G., Tondeur, J., Chai, C. S., & Dong, Y. (2016). Validation and profile of Chinese pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge scale. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 49–65.

Schmidt, D. A., Thompson, A. D., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge ( TPACK ): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of Research Technology in Education, 42(2), 123–149.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching. Journal of Education, 15(2), 4–14.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1).

Spector, J. M., Merrill, M. D., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (2014). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: Fourth Edition. Springer New York.

Tai, H. C., Pan, M. Y., & Lee, B. O. (2015). Applying Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model to develop an online English writing course for nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 35(6), 782–788.

Tan, E. (2013). Informal learning on YouTube: Exploring digital literacy in independent online learning. Learning, Media and Technology, 38(4), 463–477.

Tanak, A. (2018). Designing TPACK-based course for preparing student teachers to teach science with technological pedagogical content knowledge. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 1–7.

Viner, R. M., Russell, S. J., Croker, H., Packer, J., Ward, J., Stansfield, C., Mytton, O., Bonell, C., & Booy, R. (2020). School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 4(5), 397–404.

Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Pareja Roblin, N., Tondeur, J., & van Braak, J. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge - A review of the literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(2), 109–121.

Worden, D. (2015). The Development Of Content Knowledge Through Teaching Practice. The Journal Of Writing Teaching Education, 68(1), 105–119.

Yeh, Y. F., Lin, T. C., Hsu, Y. S., Wu, H. K., & Hwang, F. K. (2015). Science Teachers’ Proficiency Levels and Patterns of TPACK in a Practical Context. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(1), 78–90.

Young, J. R., Young, J. L., & Shaker, Z. (2012). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Literature Using Confidence Intervals. TechTrends, 56(5), 25–33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.