Identification of Chemistry Learning Problems Viewed from Conceptual Change Model

I. W. Redhana, I. B. N. Sudria, I. Hidayat, L. M. Merta


This study aimed at describing and explaining chemistry learning problems viewed from conceptual change model and misconceptions of students. The study was qualitative research of case study type conducted in one class of SMAN 1 Singaraja. Subjects of the study were a chemistry teacher and students. Data were obtained through classroom observation, interviews, and conception tests. The chemistry learning problems were grouped based on aspects of necessity, intelligibility, plausibility, and fruitfulness. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results of the study showed that the chemistry learning problems related to the aspect of necessity were that the teacher did not carry out the laboratory work and did not discuss the properties of the buffer solution. The problems related to aspects of intelligibility were the teacher asked successive questions, answered her own questions, gave wrong information, made unclear and wrong analogies, and did not ask student reasons. The problems related to the plausibility aspects were that the teacher had less emphasis on the importance of context and neglected the students’ alternative conceptions. The problems related to the fruitfulness aspects were that the teacher was less likely to provide complex problems especially with regard to the application of the buffer solution in everyday life. Students experienced misconceptions on some concepts of buffer solution.


conceptual change model; misconceptions; buffer solutio

Full Text:



Allsop, R., & George, N. H. (1982). Redox in Nuffied Advanced Chemistry. Education in Chemistry, 19, 57–59.

Aydin, S. (2012). Remediation of Misconceptions about Geometric Optics Using Conceptual Change Texts. Journal of Education Research and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1–12.

Balci, S., Cakiroglu, J., & Tekkaya, C. (2006). Engagement Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and, Evaluation (5E) Learning Cycle and Conceptual Change Text as Learning Tools. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 34(3), 199–203.

Banerjee, A. C. (1991). Spontaneity, Reversibility, and Equilibrium. In the Eleventh International Conference on Chemical Education. London, UK.

Barke, H. D., Hazari, A., & Yitbarek, S. (2009). Misconceptions in Chemistry. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Barral, F. L., Fernandes, E. G. R., & Otero, J. R. G. (1992). Secondary Students’ Interpretations of The Process Occurring in An Electrochemical Cell. Journal of Chemical Education, 69, 655–657.

Baser, M. (2006a). Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students’ Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts. Journal of Maltese Education Research, 4(1), 64–79.

Baser, M. (2006b). Fostering Conceptual Change by Cognitive Conflict Based Instruction on Students’ Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 2(2), 96–114.

Berber, N. C., & Sarı, M. (2009). The Effect of Understanding the Conceptual Change Texts in Subject Work, Power, Energy. Journal of Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty, 27, 159–172.

Bojczuk, M. (1982). Topic Difficulties in O- and A-level Chemistry. School Science Review, 545–551.

Bradley, J. D., & Mosimege, M. D. (1998). Misconceptions in Acids & Bases: A Comparative Study of Student Teachers with Different Chemistry Backgrounds. South African Journal of Chemistry, 51, 137–155.

Brist, H. C. (2012). The Effect of a Contextual Approach to Chemistry Instruction on Students’ Attitudes, Confidence, and Achievement in Science. Montana State University.

Butts, B., & Smith, R. (1981). What do Students Perceive as Difficult in HSC Chemistry? Australian Science Teachers Journal, 32, 45–51.

Calik, M., Okur, M., & Taylor, N. (2011). A Comparison of Different Conceptual Change Pedagogies Employed within The Topic of Sound Propagation. Science Education Technolgy, 20, 729–742.

Cetengul, I. P., & Geban, O. (2005). Understanding of Acid-Base Concept by Using Conceptual Change Approach. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29, 69–74.

Cetengul, I. P., & Geban, O. (2005). Understanding of Acid-Base Concept by Using Conceptual Change Approach. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29, 69–74.

Chiu, M. H. (2005). A National Survey of Students’ Conceptions in Chemistry in Taiwan. Chemical Education International, 6(1), 1–8.

de Jong, O. (1982). Difficult Topics. Chemisch Weekblad, 78, 90–91.

de Jong, O., Acampo, J., & Verdonk, A. (1995). Problems in Teaching the Topic of Redox Reactions: Actions and Conceptions of Chemistry Teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(10), 1097–1110.

Dilber, R., & Duzgun, B. (2008). Effectiveness of Analogy on Students’ Success and Elimination of Misconceptions. American Journal of Physics Education, 2(3), 174–183.

Finley, F. N., Stewart, J., & Yarroch., W. L. (1982). Teachers’ Perceptions of Important and Difficult Science Content. Science Education, 66, 531–538.

Gadgil, S., Nokes-Malach, T. J., & Chi, M. T. H. (2011). Effectiveness of Holistic Mental Model Confrontation in Driving Conceptual Change. Learning and Instruction, 30, 1–15.

Garnett, P. J., & Treagust, D. F. (1992a). Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electric Circuit and Oxidation-Reduction Equation. Journal of Research and Science Teaching, 29, 121–142.

Garnett, P. J., & Treagust, D. F. (1992b). Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical (Galvanic) and Electrolytic Cells. Journal of Research and Science Teaching, 29, 1079–1099.

Hennessey, M. G. (2003). Metacognitive Aspects of Students’ Reflective Discourse: Implications for Intentional Conceptual Change Teaching and Learning. In P. R. Sinatra, G. M. & Pintrich (Ed.), Intentional Conceptual Change (pp. 103–132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hewson, P. W., & Thorley, R. (1989). The Condition of Conceptual Change in The Classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 11, 541–553.

Kaya, E., & Geban, O. (2012). Facilitating Conceptual Change in Rate of Reaction Concepts Using Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction. Education and Science, 37(163), 216–225.

Khasanah, N., Wartono, & Yuliati, L. (2016). Analysis of Mental Model of Students Using Isomorphic Problems in Dynamics of Rotational Motion Topic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(2), 186–191.

Khun, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago.

Kose, S., Kaya, F., Gezer, K., & Kara, I. (2011). Computer Aided Conceptual Change Texts: A Sample Course Application. Journal of Pamukkale University Education, 29(1), 73–88.

Kurniawan, A. M. (2012). Menggali Pemahaman Siswa SMA pada Konsep Larutan Penyangga Menggunakan Instrumen Diagnostik Two-tier. Malang: UM Press.

Madu, B. C., & Orji, M. (2015). Effects of Cognitive Conflict Instructional Strategy on Students’ Conceptual Change in Temperature and Heat. SAGE Open, (July-September), 1–9.

Nahum, T. L., Hofstein, A., Mamlok-Naaman, R., & Bar-Dove, Z. (2004). Can Final Examinations Amplify Students’ Misconception in Chemistry? Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 5(3), 301–325.

Onder, I., & Geban, O. (2006). The Effect of Conceptual Change Texts Oriented Instruction on Students’ Understanding of the Solubility Equilibrium Concept. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 30, 166–173.

Orgill, M., & Sutherland, A. (2006). Undergraduate Chemistry Students’ Perception of and Misconception about Buffer and Buffer problems. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9, 131–143.

Pinker, S. (2003). The blank state: Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Harper.

Posner, G. J., Strike, K. A., Hewson, P. W., & Gertzog., W. A. (1982). Accommodation of a Scientific Conception: Toward a Theory of Conceptual Change. Science Education, 88(2), 211–227.

Redhana, I. W. (2011). Miskonsepsi Siswa pada Topik Hidrokarbon. In Seminar Nasional MIPA I. Singaraja, Indonesia: Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha.

Redhana, I. W., & Kirna, I. M. (2004). Identifikasi Miskonsepsi Siswa SMA Negeri di Kota Singaraja terhadap Konsep-Konsep Kimia. Singaraja, Indonesia.

Ross, B., & Munby, H. (1991). Concept Mapping and Misconceptions: A Study of High School Students’ Understanding of Acids & Bases. International Journal of Science Education, 13, 11–24.

Rufaida, S., & Sujiono, E. H. (2013). Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran dan Pengetahuan Awal terhadap Kemampuan Memecahkan Masalah Fisika Peserta Didik Kelas XI IPA MAN 2 Model Makassar. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 2(2), 161–168.

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Educational Psychology (5th ed.). New York: The McGraw Hill Company, Inc.

Santyasa, I. W. (2008). Pengembangan Pemahaman Konsep dan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Fisika bagi Siswa dengan Pemberdayaan Model Perubahan Konseptual Berseting Investigasi Kelompok. Singaraja, Indonesia.

Sinatra, G., & Broughton, S. (2011). Review of Research Bridging Reading Comprehension and Conceptual Change in Science Education: The Promise of Refutation Text. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 374–393.

Tas, E., Gulen, S., Oner, Z., & Ozyurek, C. (2015). The Effects of Classic and Web-Designed Conceptual Change Texts on The Subject of Water Chemistry. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(2), 263–280.

Taslıdere, E. (2013). Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Decreasing Their Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits. Creative Education, 4(4), 273–282.

Trundle, K. C., & Bell, R. L. (2009). The Use of a Computer Simulation to Promote Conceptual Change: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Computers & Education, 54, 1078–1088.

Tsai, C. C., & Chou, C. (2002). Diagnosing Students’ Alternative Conceptions in Science. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(2), 157–165.

Wenning, C. J. (2008). Dealing More Effectively with Alternative Conceptions in Science. Journal of Physics Teacher Education Online, 5(1), 11–19.

Widarti, H. R., Permanasari, A., & Mulyani, S. (2016). Student Misconception on Redox Titration (A Challenge on The Course Implementation through Cognitive Dissonance Based on the Multiple Representations). Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(1), 56–62.

Yumusak, A., Maras, I., & Sahin, M. (2015). Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Removing the Misconception of Radioactivity. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientist, 3(2), 23–50.


  • There are currently no refbacks.