Discovering Learning Strategy to increase Metacognitive Knowledge on Biology Learning in Secondary School

Y. Herlanti, Y. Mardiati, Retno Wahyuningtyas, E. Mahardini, M. Iqbal, A. Sofyan


The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summary notes, reciprocal teaching using mind mapping, problem-based learning, and investigation group. The results showed that those studying under problem-based learning strategy spent a significantly higher numbers in metacognitive knowledge in biology learning and followed by students who study under reciprocal teaching using mind mapping. According to the finding, it is expected that teachers of Biology will practice problem-based learning strategy in their classroom in order to increase the Metacognitive knowledge. 


metacognitive knowledge, Group Investigation, Reciprocal Teaching, mind map, concept map, problem-based learning

Full Text:



Adodo, S. O. (2013). Effect of Mind-Mapping as a Self-Regulated Learning Strategy on Students’ Achievement in Basic Science and Technology. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(6), 163–172.

Agoro, A.A. & Akinsola, M.K. (2013). Effectiveness of Reflective- Reciprocal Teaching on Pre-Service Teachers ’ Achievement and Science Process Skills in. International Journal of Educational and Research, 1(8), 1–20.

Artelt, C., Weinert, S., & Handel, M. (2013). Assessing metacognitive knowledge : Development and evaluation of a test instrument Erfassung metakognitiven Wissens : Entwicklung und Evaluation eines Testinstruments 1 . Indicators of self-regulated learning within the German National Educational Panel. Journal of Educational Research Online, 5(2), 162–188.

Buzan, T. (2012). Mind Mapping: Scientific Research and Studies. London: Think Buzan Ltd.

Choo, T. O. L., Eng, T. K., & Ahmad, N. (2011). Effects of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension. Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 11(2), 140–149. Retrieved from

Cooper, T., & Greive, C. (2009). The Effectiveness of the Methods of Reciprocal Teaching. Teach, 3(1), 45–52. Retrieved from

Doolittle, P. E., Hicks, D., Triplett, C. F., Young, C. a, & Tech, V. (2006). Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension in Higher Education: A Strategy for Fostering the Deeper Understanding of Texts. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in High Education, 17(2), 106–118. Retrieved from

Evrekli, E., Balim, A. G., & Inel, D. (2009). Mind mapping applications in special teaching methods courses for science teacher candidates and teacher candidates’ opinions concerning the applications. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2274–2279.

Fakhriah, F. (2013). Penerapan Problem Based Learning Dalam Upaya Mengembangkan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Mahasiswa. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 2(1), 12–17.

Garderen, D. Van. (2004). Focus on Inclusion Reciprocal Teaching As a Comprehension Strategy for Understanding Mathematical. New York: Taylor & Francis Inc.

Hake, R. R. (1999). Analyzing change/gain scores. Retrieved from

Hartini, T; Kusdiwelirawan, A; Fitriana, I. (2014). Pengaruh Berpikir Kreatif Dengan Model Problem Based Learning (PBL) Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Fisika Siswa dengan Menggunakan Tes Open Ended. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 3(1).

Jayapraba, G., & Kanmani, M. (1998). Effect of Metacognitive Strategy On Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method To Enhance Biology Achievement. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 4(2), 47–57.

Livingston, J. A. (1997). Metacognition: An Overview. Retrieved from

Meltzer, D. E. (2002). The relationship between mathematics preparation and conceptual learning gains in physics: A possible “hidden variable” in diagnostic pretest scores. American Journal of Physics, 70(12), 1259.

Novak, J. D., & Cañas, a J. (2008). The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them. Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01 Rev 2008-01

Pierce, W. (2003). Metacognition: Study Strategies, Monitoring, & Motivation. Retrieved from

Pintrich, P. R. (2016). The Role of Metacognitive Knowledge in Learning , Teaching , and Assessing, 5841(April), 219–225.

Pritasari, C., Dwiastuti, S., & Probosari, R. M. (2015). The Argumentation Capacity Improvement Through The Problem Based Learning Implementation In Class X MIA 1 SMA Batik 2 Surakarta. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 4(2), 158–163.

Rahayu, P., & Azizah, U. (2012). Students ’ Metacognition Level Through of Implementation of Problem Based Learning With Metacognitive Strategies At Sman 1 Manyar. Unesa Journal of Chemical Education, 1(1), 164–173.

Rompayom, P., Tambunchong, C., Wongyounoi, S., & Dechsri, P. (2010). The Development of Metacognitive Inventory to Measure Students’ Metacognitive Knowledge Related to Chemical Bonding Conceptions. International Association for Educational Assessment, (IAEA), 1–7. Retrieved from

Sharan, Y., & Sharan, S. (1989). Group Investigation Expands Cooperative Learning. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 17–21.

Tosun, C., & Senocak, E. (2013). The effects of problem-based learning on metacognitive awareness and attitudes toward chemistry of prospective teachers with different academic backgrounds. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 61–73.

Vanides, J; Yin, Y; Tomita, M; Ruiz-Primo, M. . (2005). Concept Maps in the science classroom. Science Scope, 28(8), 27–31.


  • There are currently no refbacks.