Screening for Hypertension and Electrocardiography (ECG) for Cardiovascular Diseases Risk

Desy Armalina, Bambang Witjahjo, Neni Susilaningsih, Ratna Damma Purnawati, Akhmad Ismail, Fanti Saktini


ECG is a routine, accessible, inexpensive, and non-invasive tool for diagnosis of CVD and has been commonly described in medical reports as a suitable diagnostic tool for assessing ‘silent’ heart disease. An observational descriptive study, in Gisikdrono Urban Communities, found 72% elderly with hypertension, and higher than the reported national prevalence in 2013 (25.8%). We gained 38% of elderly with abnormal ECG which is: 5% Old myocardial infarction, 3% IMO Anteroseptal, 5% LVH, 8% LAD, 3%) of Inferior Ischemia, 3% dysrhythmia, and 13% bradycardia, without complaint of heart disease before. Aging became one of the factors of declining protection in the heart and increases the risk of destruction of heart failure. Considering examination of other organs that can affect the cause of heart anomalies to the elderly and expected to raise awareness of the importance of maintaining the blood pressure.


Elderly, Hypertension, ECG, CVD

Full Text:



Ajeng, T.E., 2016. The Relationship Between Non-Communicable Diseases History, Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 12(23), pp. 120–130.

Cao, J., & Rammohan, A., 2016. Social Capital and Healthy Ageing in Indonesia, BMC Public Health. BMC Public Health, 16(1), pp. 1–14.

Cholik, H.R., & Laily, Isro’in., 2017. Differences In Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Disease Risk On. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 13(10), pp. 69–76.

Khane, R.S., & Surdi, A.D., 2012. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in the Elderly: A Population Survey in India. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 37(2), pp. 92–99.

Khane, R.S., Surdi, A.D., & Bhatkar, R.S., 2011. Changes in ECG Pattern with Advancing Age. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 22(4), pp. 97–101.

Kontis, V., Bennett, J.E., Mathers, C.D., Li, G., Foreman, K., & Ezzati, M., 2017. Future Life Expectancy in 35 Industrialised Countries: Projections with a Bayesian Model Ensemble. The Lancet, 389(10076), pp. 1323–1335.

Lakatta, J.B.S., 2012. Aging-associated Cardiovascular Changes and Their Relationship to Heart Failure, Heart Fail Clin., 8(1), pp. 143–164.

Lenfant, C., Chobanian, A.A.V, Jones, D.W.D., Roccella, E.E.J., Bakris, G.L., Black, H.R., Cushman, W.C., Green, L.A., Izzo, J.L., Materson, B.J., Oparil, S., & Wright, J.T., 2003. Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7), pp. 1206–52.

License, N. I., Reyes, E.B., Ha, J., Firdaus, I., Mohd, A., & Phrommintikul, A., 2016. Title Heart failure across Asia : Same Healthcare Burden but Differences in Organization of Care. International Journal of Cardiology, 223, pp. 163–167.

Liu, M., He, Y., Jiang, B., Wang, J., Wu, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Zeng, J., & Yao, Y., 2015. Association between Family History and Hypertension among Chinese Elderly. Medicine (United States), 94(48), pp. 1–6.

Mulè’, G., Nardi, E., Guarneri, M., & Cottone, S., 2016. Electrocardiography for Assessment of Hypertensive Heart Disease: A New Role for an Old Tool, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(9), pp. 843–845.

Murtagh, G., Dawkins, I.R., O’Connell, R., Badabhagni, M., Patel, A., Tallon, E., O’Hanlon, R., Ledwidge, M.T., & McDonald, K.M., 2012. Screening to Prevent Heart Failure (STOP-HF): Expanding the Focus Beyond Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction. European Journal of Heart Failure, 14(5), pp. 480–486.

Nabil Alama, M., 2017. Aging-Related Changes of the Cardiovascular System, Journal of Health and Environmental Research, 3(2), pp. 27.

Olin, B.R., & Pharm, D., 2018. Hypertension : The Silent Killer : Updated JNC-8 Guideline Recommendations. Albama Pharmacy Association, pp. 1–8.

Priebe, J., & Howell, F., 2014. Old-Age Poverty in Indonesia: Empirical Evidence and Policy Options - A Role for Social Pensions, Tnp2K Working Paper 07 – 2014, (March), pp. 1–97.

Raggi, A., Corso, B., Minicuci, N., Quintas, R., Sattin, D., De Torres, L., Chatterji, S., Frisoni, G.B., Haro, J.M., Koskinen, S., Martinuzzi, A., Miret, M., Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B., & Leonardi, M., 2016. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-sectional Study in Finland, Poland, and Spain. PLoS One, 11(7), pp. 1–17.

Rathnayake, S., & Siop, S., 2015. Self-rated Health and Its Determinants among Older People Living in the Rural Community in Sri Lanka. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 4(6), pp. 39–45.

Sekplin A.S., Sekeon, & Angela F.C., Kalesaran, G.D.K., 2017. The Association Between Hypertension and Quality of Life Among Elderly : A Population-Based Comparison Study with General Population in Tomohon, Indonesia. Global Journal Of Medicine And Public Health, 6(6).

Singh, S., Shankar, R., & Singh, G.P., 2017. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension : A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi. International Journal of Hypertension. Hindawi, 2017, pp. 1–10.

Tamosiunas, A., Petkeviciene, J., Radisauskas, R., Bernotiene, G., Luksiene, D., Kavaliauskas, M., Milvidait, I., & Virviciute, D., 2019. Trends in Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality in Lithuania 1986 – 2015. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 3, pp. 1–9.

Tryjanowski, P., Sparks, T. H., & Kosicki, J.Z., 2006. The Relationship between Means and Variances in Avian Reproductive Success between Local Populations of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia): Reply to Moreno and Polo. Population Ecology. BMC Public Health, 48(2), pp. 174.

Wachtell, K., & Okin, P.M., 2016. An Age-old Test in Old Age: ECG Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Elderly. Journal of Hypertension, 34(11), pp. 2145–2146.

Wang, H., & Zuhlke, L.J., 2016. Global, Regional, and National Life Expectancy, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-specific Mortality for 249 Causes of Death, 1980–2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388(10053), pp. 1459–1544.

Wilcox, T., & Hirshkowitz, A., 2009. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly: Morbidity, Mortality, and Costs. Clin Geriatr Med, 25(4), pp. 563–vii.

World Health Organization., 2017. State of Health Inequality: Indonesia, State Of Health Inequality Indonesia.


  • There are currently no refbacks.