FAKTOR RISIKO MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS (MDR-TB)

Dwi Sarwani SR, Sri Nurlaela, Isnani Zahrotul A

Abstract

Multi Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) merupakan masalah terbesar dalam pencegahan dan pemberantasan TB dunia. Indonesia berada di peringkat 8 dari 27 negara dengan MDR-TB terbanyak di dunia. WHO global report 2010, memperkirakan pasien MDR-TB di Indonesia berjumlah 8.900. MDR-TB adalah penyakit yang disebabkan Mycobacterium tuberkulosis yang resisten minimal terhadap rifampisin dan isoniazid. Masalah penelitian adalah faktor risiko apa yang berhubungan dengan MDR-TB. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berbagai faktor risiko MDR-TB. Metode penelitian survei dengan kasus kontrol. Populasi kasus adalah penderita TB yang terbukti resisten positif dan sampel kontrol adalah penderita yang terbukti resisten negatif. Perbandingan kasus:kontrol= 32:32. Analisis data dengan dengan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko yang terbukti berpengaruh terhadap kejadian Multi Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) yaitu motivasi penderita yang rendah OR =4,2 (CI=1,478-11,94) dan ketidakteraturan berobat OR=2,3 (CI=1,3810,28). Diperlukan berbagai dukungan khususnya yang berasal dari keluarga dan lingkungan pasien agar dapat memotivasi penderita TB paru bahwa penyakitnya dapat disembuhkan dan melakukan pengobatan dengan teratur. Simpulan penelitian adalah motivasi penderita yang rendah dan ketidakteraturan berobat berpengaruh terhadap kejadian Multi Drug Resistant.

Multi Drug Resistant (MDR - TB ) is the biggest problem of TB prevention and eradication in world. Indonesia is ranked 8 of 27 countries with MDR-TB in the world. WHO global report 2010, estimated MDR-TB patients in Indonesia amounted to 8.900. MDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. The purpose of research was to determine MDR-TB risk factors. A survey method was conducted with case-control. The population were TB case patients who positive and control who negative resistance by test. Comparison case: control = 32:32. Data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. The results showed that the risk factors of MDR-TB were low patient motivation OR=4.2 (CI=1.478 to 11.94) and treatment irregularity OR=2.3 (CI=1.38 to 10,28). Required a variety support, especially from family and environment in order to motivate patients with pulmonary tuberculosis that their disease can be cured and do the treatment regularly. Research conclusion, low motivation and irregularity treatment had effect to Multi Drug Resistant.

Keywords

Multi Drug Resistant; Tuberculosis; Motivation

Full Text:

PDF

References

Balaji, V., Daley P., Azad, A.A., Sudarsanam, T., Michael, J., Sarojini, Sahni, Diana, R., George, C.P., Abraham, I., Thomas, K., Ganesh, A., John K R., & Mathai D. 2010. Risk Factors for MDR and XDR-TB in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in India. PLoS ONE, 5(3).

Barroso, E.C., et.al. 2003. Risk Factors for Acquired Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Journal Pneumol, 29 (2) 89-97.

Caminero, J.A. 2010. Multidrug-resistant Tuber-culosis: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Case Finding. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(4) 382390.

Casal, M., etlal. 2005. A Case-Control Study for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Risk Factors in Four European Countries. Microbial Drug Resistance, 11(1) 62-67.009:217-21.

Faustini, A., et.al. 2006. Risk Factors For Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe: A Systematic Review. Thorax an International Journal Of Respiratory Medicine, (61) 158-16.

Firdiana P, Widya H.C. 2008. Hubungan antara Luas Ventilasi dan Pencahayaan Rumah dengan Terjadinya Tuber Culosis Paru Anak di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kedungmundu. Kecamatan Tembalang Semarang Tahun 2007. Jurnal Kemas, 3(2):89-101

Holtz, T.H., et.al. 2006. Risk factors associated with default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, South Africa, 19992001. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(6) 649655.

Marahatta, S.B. 2010. Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis Burden and Risk Factors: An Update. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 8 (1) 116-125.

Masniari, L., Priyanti, Z.S., & Tjandra, Y.A. 2007. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kesembuhan Penderita TB Paru. J Respir Indo, 27(3) 176-185.

Massi, M.N., etl.al. 2011. Drug Resistance Among Tuberculosis Patients Attending Diagnostic and Treatment Centres in Makassar, Indonesia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 15(4) 489-95.

Sharma, S.K. & Mohan, A. 2004. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Indian J Med Res, (120) 354-376.

Shetty N., et.al. 2006. An Epidemiological Evaluation of Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in South India: A Matched Case Control Study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 10(1) 8086.

Ti, T., et.al. 2002. National Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey, 2002, in Myanmar. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 10(10) 1111-6.

WHO. 2007. Global Tuberculosis Report. Geneva. www.who.org. Diakses 22 Desember .

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.