Assessing the Quality of Life Among Commuting Workers and Uncomfortable Travel

David Kusmawan, Shofi Andari, Indri H Susilowati


Many studies conclude commuting that has an impact on the quality of life of the commuter both in the physical, psychological, health, and environmental aspects of the commuter. Increased risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), obesity, increased blood pressure, and low physical health conditions are found in prolonged commuting activities as the existing problem in public health. This study using cross sectional design with WHO QOL BREF questionnaire.  The total sample 155 respondents of commuting working using KRL Commuter Line Bogor to Jakarta in 2018. The initial model for assessing the relationship directly and indirectly between quality of life among commuting workers and travel uncomfortable, health complaint, psychological condition, bad experience, and income was constructed on the basis of severe hypotheses Based on the results of the path analysis it was found that income has a direct effect on quality of life. Psychological conditions have a direct effect on quality of life. Psychological condition is intervening variable for travel uncomfortable and health complaints as indirect effect. These results may help to identify the direct factor to improve the quality of life among commuting workers and as a basis for developing policies to improve the quality of public transportation services for commuting workers, and as a basis for formulating policies related to housing development locations that are integrated with public transportation facilities.


WHOQOL-BREF, Path Analysis, Quality of Life, Commuting workers, KRL Commuter Line, Psychological Condition

Full Text:



Gottholmseder, G., Nowotny, K., Pruckner, G. J., & Theurl, E., 2009. Stress Perception and Commuting. Health economics, 18(5), pp.559-576.

Han, X., & Naeher, L.P., 2006. A Review of Traffic-related Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Studies in the Developing World. Environment international, 32(1), pp.106-120.

Hoehner, C.M., Barlow, C.E., Allen, P., & Schootman, M., 2012. Commuting Distance, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Risk. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(6), pp.571-578.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M., 2008. Evaluating Model Fit: A Synthesis of the Structural Equation Modelling Literature. In 7th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, pp.195-200.

Jeon, J., 2015. The Strengths and Limitations of the Statistical Modeling of Complex Social Phenomenon: Focusing on SEM, Path Analysis, or Multiple Regression Models. International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering, 9(5), pp.1634-1642.

Kariv, D., & Kirschenbaum, A., 2007. Collective Spatial Perceptions of Men and Women Commuters: Linking Space, Jobs and Activity. J. Hum. Ecol, 22(1), pp.71-82.

Kim, S., Kim, Y., Lim, S.S., Ryoo, J.H., & Yoon, J.H., 2019. Long Commute Time and Sleep Problems with Gender Difference in Work–Life Balance: A Cross-sectional Study of More than 25,000 Workers. Safety and Health at Work, 10(4), pp.470-475.

Kline, R.B., 2015. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Publications.

Knibbs, L.D., Cole-Hunter, T., & Morawska, L., 2011. A Review of Commuter Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Its Health Effects. Atmospheric Environment, 45(16), pp.2611-2622.

Künn-Nelen, A., 2016. Does Commuting Affect Health? Health Economics, 25(8), pp.984-1004.

Maehlisen, M.H., Pasgaard, A.A., Mortensen, R.N., Vardinghus-Nielsen, H., Torp-Pedersen, C., & Boggild, H., 2018. Perceived stress as a risk factor of unemployment: a register-based cohort study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), pp. 728-738.

Mattisson, K., HÃ¥kansson, C., & Jakobsson, K., 2015. Relationships between Commuting and Social Capital Among Men and Women in Southern Sweden. Environment and Behavior, 47(7), pp.734-753.

Nuvolati, G., 2007. Commuting and Quality of Life: The Italian Case. In Advancing Quality of Life in a Turbulent World (pp. 55-66). Springer, Dordrecht.

Roberts, J., Hodgson, R., & Dolan, P., 2011. “It’s Driving Her Madâ€: Gender Differences in the Effects of Commuting on Psychological Health. Journal of Health Economics, 30(5), pp.1064-1076.

Sandow, E., 2011. On The Road: Social Aspects of Commuting Long Distances to Work. Doctoral Dissertation. Kulturgeografiska Institutionen, Umeå Universitet.

Stutzer, A., & Frey, B.S., 2008. Stress that Doesn’t Pay: The Commuting Paradox. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110(2), pp.339-366.

Tomei, G., Fioravanti, M., Cerratti, D., Sancini, A., Tomao, E., Rosati, M.V., Vacca, D., Palitti, T., Di Famiani, M., Giubilati, R., De Sio, S., & Tomei, F., 2010. Occupational Exposure to Noise and the Cardiovascular System: A Meta-Analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 408(4), pp.681-689.

Urhonen, T., Lie, A., & Aamodt, G., 2016. Associations Between Long Commutes and Subjective Health Complaints Among Railway Workers in Norway. Preventive Medicine Reports, 4, pp.490-495.

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D.F., & Summers, G.F., 1977. Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. Sociological Methodology, 8, pp.84-136.

Zuurbier, M., Hoek, G., Oldenwening, M., Meliefste, K., van den Hazel, P., & Brunekreef, B., 2011. Respiratory Effects of Commuters’ Exposure to Air Pollution in Traffic. Epidemiology, 2011, pp.219-227.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.