Homesickness, Anxiety and Depression among Pakistani International Students in Indonesia during Covid-19 Outbreak

Shahzad Shoukat, Cyuzuzo Callixte, Jusak Nugraha, Theresia Indah Budy, Hamad Shoukat

Abstract


International students are exposed to multiple mental health crisis due to social, environmental and culture shocks in foreign lands but it gets worse in presence of life- threatening disease outbreak. This research was conducted to evaluate the homesickness, anxiety and depression among Pakistani international students in Indonesia during Covid-19 Outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted on 86 random students that are pursuing their studies in different public and private universities in Indonesia. The data were collected by distributing google forms via email and social media groups and the responses from the respondents were recorded and analyzed statistically. The study findings revealed that there is a correlation between Covid-19 pandemic and the development of various mental health crisis where 33 students (38.37 %) developed homesickness, 11 students (12.79%) developed anxiety and 2 students (2.33 %) manifested low-grade depression. Homesickness was outstandingly observed in females (72.72 %) whereas anxiety was highly reported in males (90.90%).  The study findings demonstrated that there is a strong negative correlation between student financial statuses and the development of homesickness (r: -0.977, P: 0.023) and anxiety (r: -0.944, P:  0.056). All in all, the fear to contract coronavirus, lockdowns, financial instability, death toll of citizens and medical professionals, run out of medical facilities and social media hoaxes are significant risk factors of mental health crisis among Pakistani international students in Indonesia.  


Keywords


Covid-19, Pakistani International Students, Mental Health Crisis, Indonesia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas, J., 2020. Crisis Management, Transnational Healthcare Challenges and Opportunities: The Intersection of COVID-19 Pandemic and Global Mental Health. Research in Globalization, 3(100037).

Adhikari, S.P., Meng, S., Wu, Y.J., Mao, Y.P., Ye, R.X., Wang, Q.Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., & Zhou, H., 2020. Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) during the Early Outbreak Period: A Scoping Review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1).

Aziz, N.A., Othman, J., Lugova, H., & Suleiman, A., 2020. Malaysia’s Approach in Handling COVID-19 Onslaught: Report on the Movement Control Order (MCO) and Targeted Screening to Reduce Community Infection Rate and Impact on Public Health and Economy. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(12).

Betty, P., & Carol, S.N., 2020., Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383, pp. 510-512.

Coughlin, S.S., 2012. Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases. Public Health Reviews, 34(2), pp.1–17.

De Cieri, H., & Lazarova, M., 2020. Your Health and Safety is of Utmost Importance to Us: A Review of Research on the Occupational Health and Safety of International Employees. Human Resource Management Review, 2020.

Delfanti, R.L., Piccioni, D.E., Handwerker, J., Bahrami, N., Krishnan, A.P., Karunamuni, R., Hattangadi-Gluth, J.A., Seibert, T.M., Srikant, A., Jones, K.A., Snyder, V.S., Dale, A.M., White, N.S., McDonald, C.R., Farid, N., Louis, D.N., Perry, A., Reifenberger, G., von Deimling, A., & Papers, G., 2018. Association between Homesickness and the Related Factors with Happiness in the Dormitory Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(2), pp.2499–2508.

Demir, A., Us, N., Khan, N.U.S., & Ali, B., 2020. The Role of E-service Quality in Shaping Online Meeting Platforms: A Case Study from Higher Education Sector. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 2020.

Hökby, S., Hadlaczky, G., Westerlund, J., Wasserman, D., Balazs, J., Germanavicius, A., Machín, N., Meszaros, G., Sarchiapone, M., Värnik, A., Varnik, P., Westerlund, M., & Carli, V., 2016. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents. JMIR Mental Health, 3(3).

Joshi, A., Vinay, M., & Bhaskar, P., 2020. Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic on the Indian Education Sector: Perspectives of Teachers on Online Teaching and Assessments. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 2020.

Kundu, A., & Bej, T., 2021. COVID-19 Response: Students’ Readiness for Shifting Classes Online. Corporate Governance (Bingley), 2019

Yarrington, J.S., Lasser, J., Garcia, D., Vargas, J.H., Couto, D.D., Marafon, T., Craske, M.G., & Niles, A.N., 2021. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health among 157,213 Americans. J Affect Disord, 286, pp.64-70.

Moeini, B., Abasi, H., Afshari, M., Haji Hosseini, M., & Ghaleiha, A., 2018. Homesickness, Depression and Happiness in University Students of Hamadan, Iran. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research, 5(3), pp.73–79.

Mohamed, A.H.H.M., Abdel-Fattah, F.A.M., Bashir, M.I.A., Alhajri, M., Khanan, A., & Abbas, Z., 2021. Investigating the Acceptance of Distance Learning Amongst Omani Students: A Case Study from Oman. Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, 2021.

Nasir, R., Zamani, Z.A., Khairudin, R., & Latipun., 2010. Effects of Family Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Cognitive Distortion on Depression among Malay and Indonesian Juvenile Delinquents. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(2), pp.613–620.

Soltani, N., 2016. General Health Status of Nursing Students in AJA University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Millitary Care Sciences, 2(4), pp.191–196.

Stroebe, M., Van-Vliet, T., Hewstone, M., & Willis, H., 2002. Homesickness among Students in Two Cultures: Antecedents and Consequences. British Journal of Psychology, 93(2), pp.147–168.

Terry, M.L., Leary, M.R., & Mehta, S., 2013. Self-compassion as a Buffer against Homesickness, Depression, and Dissatisfaction in the Transition to College. Self and Identity, 12(3), pp.278–290.

Thompson, R., 2020. Pandemic Potential of 2019-nCoV. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(3), pp.280.

Uchenna, C.O., Opeyemi, I.S.-M., & Janet, T.K., 2013. Self Efficacy, SelfEsteem and Gender ad Factors Predicting Homesickness of Freshmen. 16(2), pp.263–270.

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D., Li, S., & Yang, N., 2020. The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical Science Monitor, 26, pp.1–8.

Zaid, Z.A., Chan, S.C., & Ho, J.J., 2007. Emotional Disorders Among Medical Students in a Malaysian Private Medical School. Singapore Medical Journal, 48(10), pp.895–899.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R., Niu, P., Zhan, F., Ma, X., Wang, D., Xu, W., Wu, G., Gao, G. F., & Tan, W. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), pp.727–733.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v17i2.31300

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.