Types and Sources of Antioxidants that Role in Determining Fertility Level

Sri Winarni(1), Ari Udijono(2), Atik Mawarni(3), Dharminto Dharminto(4), Oktavia Beni Kujariningrum(5), Waviq Azizah(6),

(1) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
(2) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
(3) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
(4) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
(5) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
(6) Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University


Lifestyle and exposure of free radicals affect in a person’s fertility. ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) in excess can caused oxidative stress and DNA damage (deoxyribonucleic acid). Adequate intake of antioxidants is needed to maintain ROS level. This review’s aim is determine the types and sources of antioxidants that play a role in determining a person’s fertility level. This research is a narrative review using a literature review method by collecting and concluding data from previous studies. The search for previous research articles was carried out on the Scopus, Science Direct, Clinical Key, SpringerLink, BMC and Google Schoolar portals with keywords in the form is foodstuffs, antioxidants, and infertility which found 8,745 articles. Total of 75 articles met the inclusion-exclusion criteria for used in writing this article. The research was conducted in  2022. Most antioxidants take a role in determining male fertility, such as glutathione, selenium, carotenoids (beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein), zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, and flavonoids. NAM (Nicotinamide) and carvacrol play a role in determining female fertility. These antioxidants can be found in fruits, vegetables, protein sources and several other plants. Consumption of antioxidant sources is highly recommended to increase fertility, especially for infertile couples.


source of antioxidants; male fertility; female fertility; ROS


Acharya, S., Gowda, C., 2017. Lifestyle factors associated with infertility in a rural area: A cross-sectional study. Int. J. Med. Sci. Public Heal. 6, 502–506. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijmsph.20170852309092016

Adeoye, O., Olawumi, J., Opeyemi, A., Christiania, O., 2018. Review on the role of glutathione on oxidative stress and infertility. J. Bras. Reprod. Assist. 22, 61–66. https://doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20180003

Afolabi, O.A., Anyogu, D.C., Hamed, M.A., Odetayo, A.F., Adeyemi, D.H., Akhigbe, R.E., 2022. Glutamine prevents upregulation of NF-kB signaling and caspase 3 activation in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced testicular damage: An animal model. Biomed. Pharmacother. 150, 113056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113056

Agarwal, A., Virk, G., Ong, C., du Plessis, S.S., 2014. Effect of oxidative stress on male reproduction. World J. Mens. Health 32, 1. https://doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.2014.32.1.1

Asati, V., Deepa, P.R., Sharma, P.K., 2022. Desert legume Prosopis cineraria as a novel source of antioxidant flavonoids / isoflavonoids: Biochemical characterization of edible pods for potential functional food development. Biochem. Biophys. Reports 29, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2022.101210

Babaei, A., Asadpour, R., Mansouri, K., Sabrivand, A., Kazemi-Darabadi, S., 2021. Lycopene protects sperm from oxidative stress in the experimental varicocele model. Food Sci. Nutr. 9, 6806–6817. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2632

Bagul, M.B., Sonawane, S.K., Arya, S.S., 2018. Bioactive characteristics and optimization of tamarind seed protein hydrolysate for antioxidant-rich food formulations. 3 Biotech 8, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1240-0

Bai, K., Xu, W., Zhang, J., Kou, T., Niu, Y., Wan, X., Zhang, L., Wang, C., Wang, T., 2016. Assessment of free radical scavenging activity of dimethylglycine sodium salt and its role in providing protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in mice. PLoS One 11, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155393

Bakhtiyar, K., Beiranvand, R., Ardalan, A., Changaee, F., Almasian, M., Badrizadeh, A., Bastami, F., Ebrahimzadeh, F., 2019. An investigation of the effects of infertility on Women’s quality of life: A case-control study. BMC Womens. Health 19, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0805-3

Bardaweel, S.K., 2014. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 14, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-244

Brahma, D., Dutta, D., 2022. Antioxidant property of beta-cryptoxanthin produced by Kocuria marina DAGII. Mater. Today Proc. 57, 1833–1837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.01.027

Çat, J., Yaman, M., 2019. Determination of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide forms of vitamin B3 (niacin) in fruits and vegetables by HPLC using postcolumn derivatization System. Pakistan J. Nutr. 18, 563–570. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.563.570

Chaudhary, A., Choudhary, S., Sharma, U., Vig, A.P., Singh, B., Arora, S., 2018. Purple head broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), a functional food crop for antioxidant and anticancer potential. J. Food Sci. Technol. 55, 1806–1815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3095-0

Cleaver, J.E., Brennan-minnella, A.M., Swanson, R.A., Fong, K., Chen, J., 2014. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage. PNAS Mei, 6–11. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414135111

Cyrus, A., Kabir, A., Goodarzi, D., Moghimi, M., 2015. The effect of adjuvant vitamin C after varicocele surgery on sperm quality and quantity in infertile men: A double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Int. Braz J Urol 41, 230–238. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2015.02.07

da Cruz, M.C.R., Perussello, C.A., Masson, M.L., 2018. Microencapsulated ascorbic acid: Development, characterization, and release profile in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. J. Food Process Eng. 41, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12922

de Souza, A.V., de Mello, J.M., da Silva Favaro, V.F., da Silva, V.F., dos Santos, T.G.F., de Lucca Sartori, D., Putti, F.F., 2021. Antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, and agro-industrial quality: Correlations between parameters in fresh and processed tomatoes. J. Food Process. Preserv. 45, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15696

Ding, R., Jin, Y., Liu, X., Zhu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, T., Xu, Y., 2016. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution. Mutat. Res. - Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 796, 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.12.002

Efrat, M., Stein, A., Pinkas, H., Unger, R., Birk, R., 2018. Dietary patterns are positively associated with semen quality. Fertil. Steril. 109, 809–816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.01.010

Egwurugwu, J.N., Ifedi, C.U., Uchefuna, R.C., Ezeokafor, E.N., Alagwu, E.A., 2013. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci 28, 17–22.

El Sheikh, M., Mesalam, A.A., Idrees, M., Sidrat, T., Mesalam, A., Lee, K.L., Kong, I.K., 2020. Nicotinamide supplementation during the in vitro maturation of oocytes improves the developmental competence of preimplantation embryos: Potential link to SIRT1/AKT signaling. Cells 9, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061550

Fafula, R. V., Onufrovych, O.K., Iefremova, U.P., Melnyk, O. V., Nakonechnyi, I.A., Vorobets, D.Z., Vorobets, Z.D., 2017. Glutathione content in sperm cells of infertile men. Regul. Mech. Biosyst. 8, 157–161. https://doi.org/10.15421/021725

Fatima, P., Begum, N., Ishrat, S., Banu, J., Anway, S.A., Rolly, S.J., Aziz, I., Rahman, D., Hossain, H.B., Hossain, H.N., 2015. Zinc suplementation in male infertility. Bangladesh Journals Online 8, 09–13.

Ferreira, F.S., de Oliveira, V.S., Chávez, D.W.H., Chaves, D.S., Riger, C.J., Sawaya, A.C.H.F., Guizellini, G.M., Sampaio, G.R., Torres, E.A.F. da S., Saldanha, T., 2022. Bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L) and their mixture (Brazilian cheiro-verde) as promising antioxidant and anti-cholesterol oxidation agents in a food system. Food Res. Int. 151, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110864

Fillería, S.G., Nardo, A.E., Paulino, M., Tironi, V., 2021. Peptides derived from the gastrointestinal digestion of amaranth 11S globulin: Structure and antioxidant functionality. Food Chem. Mol. Sci. 3, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fochms.2021.100053

Guo, Z., Yang, J., Yang, G., Feng, T., Zhang, X., Chen, Y., Feng, R., Qian, Y., 2022. Effects of nicotinamide on follicular development and the quality of oocytes. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 20, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-022-00938-x

Haeri, F., Nouri, M., Nezamoleslami, S., Moradi, A., Ghiasvand, R., 2022. Role of dietary antioxidants and vitamins intake in semen quality parameters: A cross-sectional study. Clin. Nutr. ESPEN 48, 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.01.005

Hamed, M.A., Akhigbe, T.M., Akhigbe, R.E., Aremu, A.O., Oyedokun, P.A., Gbadamosi, J.A., Anifowose, P.E., Adewale, M.A., Aboyeji, O.O., Yisau, H.O., Tajudeen, G.O., Titiloye, M.M., Ayinla, N.F., Ajayi, A.F., 2022. Glutamine restores testicular glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense and upregulates NO/cGMP signaling in sleep deprivation-induced reproductive dysfunction in rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 148, 112765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112765

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, S.B., Simbar, M., Vedadhir, A., 2014. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study. Iran. J. Reprod. Med. 12, 131–138.

Hashemipour, H., Kermanshahi, H., Golian, A., Khaksar, V., 2014. Effects of carboxy methyl cellulose and thymol + carvacrol on performance, digesta viscosity and some blood metabolites of broilers. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl). 98, 672–679. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12121

Indarwati, I., Budihastuti, U.R., Dewi, Y.L.R., 2017. Analysis of Factors Influencing Female Infertility. J. Matern. Child Heal. 02, 150–161. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2017.02.02.06

Jamalan, M., Ghaffari, M.A., Hoseinzadeh, P., Hashemitabar, M., Zeinali, M., 2016. Human sperm quality and metal toxicants: Protective effects of some flavonoids on male reproductive function. Int. J. Fertil. Steril. 10, 215–222.

Karra, S., Sebii, H., Jardak, M., Bouaziz, M.A., Attia, H., Blecker, C., Besbes, S., 2020. Male date palm flowers: Valuable nutritional food ingredients and alternative antioxidant source and antimicrobial agent. South African J. Bot. 131, 181–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.02.010

Ko, E.Y., Sabanegh, E.S., Agarwal, A., 2014. Male infertility testing: Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity. Fertil. Steril. 102, 1518–1527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.10.020

Leal, F.C., Farias, F.O., do Amaral, W., Toci, A.T., Mafra, M.R., Igarashi-Mafra, L., 2022. Green Solvents to Value Annona muricata L. Leaves as Antioxidants Source: Process Optimization and Potential as a Natural Food Additive. Waste and Biomass Valorization 13, 1233–1241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-021-01581-0

Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Latocha, P., Jesion, I., Park, Y.S., Katrich, E., Barasch, D., Nemirovski, A., Gorinstein, S., 2016. Bioactivity and nutritional properties of hardy kiwi fruit Actinidia arguta in comparison with Actinidia deliciosa “Hayward” and Actinidia eriantha “Bidan.” Food Chem. 196, 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.127

Liu, Z., Ren, Z., Zhang, J., Chuang, C., 2018. Role of ROS and nutritional antioxidants in human diseases. Front. Physiol. 9, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00477

Mahamat, S.A., Niane, K., Cyrille Ayessou, N., Sow, A., Balde, S., Ibn Khatab Cisse, O., Coume, M., 2021. Lycopen’s stability in watermelon juice (Citrullus lanatus) regarding to technological routes. Food Nutr. Sci. 12, 693–702. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.127052

Majzoub, A., Agarwal, A., 2017. Antioxidant therapy in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Indian J. Urol. 33, 207–214. https://doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_15_17

Mardiana, M., Lestari, Y.N., Prameswari, G.N., 2022. Quality of Diet and Nutritional Status on Male Young Athletes in Central Java. J. Kesehat. Masy. 17, 444–452. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v17i3.33771

McLaughlin, Q.R., Gunderson, M.P., 2022. Effects of selenium treatment on endogenous antioxidant capacity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part - C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 256, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2022.109324

Miafo, A.P.T., Koubala, B.B., Muralikrishna, G., Kansci, G., Fokou, E., 2022. Non-starch polysaccharides derived from sorghum grains, bran, spent grain and evaluation of their antioxidant properties with respect to their bound phenolic acids. Bioact. Carbohydrates Diet. Fibre 28, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2022.100314

Mohamad, S.B., Hassan, A.A., 2014. Improving effect of zinc supplementation on pituitary gonadotropins secretion in smokers. African J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 8, 81–86. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP2013.3777

Mouradov, A., Spangenberg, G., 2014. Flavonoids: A metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate. Front. Plant Sci. 5, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00620

Muhammad, Z., 2017. Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system. Asian Pacific J. Reprod. 6, 145–150. https://doi.org/10.12980/apjr.6.20170401

Nishino, A., Yasui, H., Maoka, T., 2017. Reaction and scavenging mechanism of β-carotene and zeaxanthin with reactive oxygen species. J. Oleo Sci. 66, 77–84. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess16107

Omu, A., Al-Azemi, M.K., Al-Maghrebi, M., Mathew, C.T., Omu, F.E., Kehinde, E.O., Anim, J.T., Oriowo, M.A., Memon, A., 2015. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model. Indian J Urol 31, 57–64.

Palani, A.F., 2018. Effect of serum antioxidant levels on sperm function in infertile male. Middle East Fertil. Soc. J. 23, 19–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mefs.2017.07.006

Palmieri, M., Papale, P., Della Ragione, A., Quaranta, G., Russo, G., Russo, S., 2016. In vitro antioxidant treatment of semen samples in assisted reproductive technology: Effects of myo-inositol on nemaspermic parameters. Int. J. Endocrinol. 2016, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2839041

Panyayong, C., Srikaeo, K., 2022. Foods from banana inflorescences and their antioxidant properties: An exploratory case in Thailand. Int. J. Gastron. Food Sci. 28, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2021.100436

Pastore, L.M., Karns, L.B., Ventura, K., Clark, M.L., Steeves, R.H., Callanan, N., 2014. Longitudinal interviews of couples diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve undergoing fragile X premutation testing. J. Genet. Couns. 23, 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10897-013-9616-0.Longitudinal

Pereira, P.M. de C.C., Vicente, A.F. dos R.B., 2013. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Sci. 93, 586–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.018

Perez, M.B., Da Peña Hamparsomian, M.J., Gonzalez, R.E., Denoya, G.I., Dominguez, D.L.E., Barboza, K., Iorizzo, M., Simon, P.W., Vaudagna, S.R., Cavagnaro, P.F., 2022. Physicochemical properties, degradation kinetics, and antioxidant capacity of aqueous anthocyanin-based extracts from purple carrots compared to synthetic and natural food colorants. Food Chem. 387, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132893

Polumackanycz, M., Wesolowski, M., Viapiana, A., 2021. Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L. Leaves as a Promising Food Source of Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 76, 458–465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-021-00922-7

Rusiani, E., Junaidi, S., Subiyono, H.S., Sumartiningsih, S., 2019. Suplementasi vitamin C dan E untuk menurunkan stres oksidatif setelah melakukan aktivitas fisik maksimal. Media Ilmu Keolahragaan Indones. 9, 32–37.

S, K., P, H., Malik, A., 2022. Chlorella minutissima as a functional food: evaluation on nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of the metabolites. Biomass Convers. Biorefinery 1, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-02401-8

Sahin, N., Delibas, I.B., Isaoglu, U., Suleyman, B., Yazici, G.N., Coban, T.A., Uzel, K., Suleyman, H., Arslan, V., 2022. The effect of carvacrol on oxido-inflammatory ovarian injury and infertility induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 49, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.31083/j.ceog4903058

Shahraki, M.R., Forghani, T., Mohammadi, M., Khazaei-Feizalabad, A., 2015. The effect of intraventricular administration of zinc on serum LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone in male rats. Zahedan J. Res. Med. Sci. 17, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.17795/zjrms-1059

Sharma, P., Kaur, P., Ghanghas, P., Kaur, J., Kaushal, N., 2020. Selenium ameliorates ibuprofen induced testicular toxicity by redox regulation: Running head: Se protects against NSAID induced testicular toxicity. Reprod. Toxicol. 96, 349–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.08.005

Silberstein, T., Har-Vardi, I., Harlev, A., Friger, M., Hamou, B., Barac, T., Levitas, E., Saphier, O., 2016. Antioxidants and polyphenols: Concentrations and relation to male infertility and treatment success. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2016, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9140925

Singhal, P., Satya, S., Naik, S.N., 2021. Fermented bamboo shoots: A complete nutritional, anti-nutritional and antioxidant profile of the sustainable and functional food to food security. Food Chem. Mol. Sci. 3, 100041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fochms.2021.100041

Šola, I., Stipaničev, M., Vujčić, V., Mitić, B., Huđek, A., Rusak, G., 2018. Comparative Analysis of Native Crocus Taxa as a Great Source of Flavonoids with High Antioxidant Activity. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 73, 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-018-0674-1

Talebi, S., Arab, A., Sorraya, N., 2021. The association between dietary antioxidants and semen parameters: A cross-sectional study among Iranian infertile men. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. November, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-03007-3

Tkaczewska, J., Zając, M., Jamróz, E., Derbew, H., 2022. Utilising waste from soybean processing as raw materials for the production of preparations with antioxidant properties, serving as natural food preservatives - A pilot study. Lwt 160, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113282

Wang, S., Wang, M., Zhang, S., Zhao, L., 2014. Oxidative stress in rats with hyperhomo-cysteinemia and intervention effect of lutein. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 18, 359–364.

Wijayanti, I., Setiyorini, E.S.S., 2018. Nutritional content of wild and cultured eel (Anguilla bicolor) from Southern Coast of Central Java. ILMU Kelaut. Indones. J. Mar. Sci. 23, 37. https://doi.org/10.14710/ik.ijms.23.1.37-44

Wiweko, B., Anggraheni, U., Elvira, S.D., Lubis, H.P., 2017. Distribution of stress level among infertility patients. Middle East Fertil. Soc. J. 22, 145–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mefs.2017.01.005

Wu, S., Wang, M., Deng, Y., Qiu, J., Zhang, X., Tan, J., 2020. Associations of toxic and essential trace elements in serum, follicular fluid, and seminal plasma with In vitro fertilization outcomes. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 204, 110965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110965

Yan, L., Liu, J., Wu, S., Zhang, S., Ji, G., Gu, A., 2014. Seminal superoxide dismutase activity and its relationship with semen quality and SOD gene polymorphism. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 31, 549–554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10815-014-0215-2

Zapata-Londoño, M.B., Ramos Polo, A., Alzate-Arbelaez, A.F., Restrepo-Betancur, L.F., Rojano, B.A., Maldonado-Celis, M.E., 2020. Effect of mango (Mangifera indica) cv. azÚcar juice consumption on plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress biomarkers. Vitae 27, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v27n1a03

Zareba, P., Colaci, D.S., Afeiche, M., Gaskins, A.J., Jørgensen, N., Mendiola, J., Swan, S.H., Chavarro, J.E., 2013. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population. Fertil. Steril. 100, 1572–1579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.08.032

Zhang, Q., Yang, G., 2014. Selenium speciation in bay scallops by high performance liquid chromatography separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection after complete enzymatic extraction. J. Chromatogr. A 1325, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.11.050

Zhao, C., Miao, Z., Yan, J., Liu, Jing, Chu, Z., Yin, H., Zheng, M., Liu, Jingsheng, 2022. Ultrasound-induced red bean protein–lutein interactions and their effects on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and digestion behaviors of complexes. Lwt 160, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113322

Zhao, J., Dong, X., Hu, X., Long, Z., Wang, L., Liu, Q., Sun, B., Wang, Q., Wu, Q., Li, L., 2016. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility. Sci. Rep. 6, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22386

Zhao, R.N., Yuan, Y., Liu, F., Han, J.G., Sheng, L., 2013. A computational investigation on the geometries, stabilities, antioxidant activity, and the substituent effects of the L-ascorbic acid and their derivatives. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 2220–2227. https://doi.org/10.1002/qua.24434


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.