Comparison Between Taichi Chuan and Jacobsons Progressive Muscular Relaxation in Decreasing Cortisol Concentration on Pre-Hypertension Patients

Tanti Ajoe Kesoema, Shofa Chasani, Shofa Chasani, Rudy Handoyo, Rudy Handoyo


Nowadays, the prevalence of hypertension and its concomitant risk of cardiovascular and kidney disease development is increasing as the disability evidence in the society also rises. One of the potential risk factors of prehypertension is anxiety and it has already well-known that cortisol is a marker of anxiety. There are some nonpharmacologic methods to relieve anxiety: exercise and relaxation. Taichi Chuan is a low intensity aerobic exercise that also gives a relaxation effect.This study is organised to find out the effect of Taichi Chuan (TCC) and Jacobsons Progressive Muscular Relaxation (JPMR) on cortisol level in pre hypertension patients. This is a pre and post-test design study with a total of 26 pre hypertension patients included. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I performed Taichi Chuan exercise, while group II performed JPMR for 18 times. The intervention frequency was 3x/week for 6 weeks with 30 minutes duration for each session. In the study, which was held in April-June 2015, there was a decrease but no significant difference of cortisol concentration in both group.The comparison between groups also did not show statistical difference. However there were significant difference noted on the blood pressure before and after intervention in both groups.


Full Text:



Carek PJ & Laibstain SE,. 2011. Exercise for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Intl J. Psychiatry in Medicine, 41(1): 15-28.

Emery, C., et al. 2008. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training on Nociceptive Flexion Reflex Threshold in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Trial. Pain, 138: 375-379.

Guyton A.C. 2010. Text Book of Medical Physiology, 12th. Ed. USA: W.B. Saunders Co.

Jin P. 1989. Changes in Heart Rate, Noradrenaline, Cortisol and Mood During Tai Chi. Journal of Psychomatic Research, 33(2): 197-206.

Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K Muntne Pr, Whelton PK, He J. 2005. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of Worldwide Data. Lancet, pages: 217-223.

Khatri SM & Singaravelan RM,. 2012. Effectiveness of Jacobsons Relaxation Technique in Hypertension. IJHSR, 1(2): 16-21.

Kunzel, H.E., et al. 2003. Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Factors Influencing Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Reactivity in Acutely Depressed Psychiatric In-Patients, Measured by the DEX-CRH Test. Neuropsychopharmacology,28(12): 2169-2178.

Lee EN. 2004. The Effects of Tai Chi Exercise Program on Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol and Cortisol Level in Patients with Essential Hypertension. Pubmed. Aug;34(5):829-837.

Maghfirah ,S., et al. 2015. Relaksasi Otot Progresif terhadap Stres Psikologis dan Perilaku Perawatan Diri Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. Jurnal Kemas 10 (2) (2015) : 137-146.

Mathur DN, et al. 1986. Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Conditioned Male Distance Runners and Nonathletes After Maximal Exercise. Journal of Sports Medicine, 26: 245-250.

Najafian J & Hashemi SMG. 2006. A Study of the Effect of Relaxation and Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation on Patients with Mild Hypertension. ARYA Journal,1(3); 178-182.

Nedeljkovic M, et al. 2011. Taiji Practice Attenuates Psychobiological Stress Reactivity-A Randomized Controlled Trial In Healthy Subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011.12.007

Opartl S, et al. 2006. Pathogenesis of Hypertension. Physiology in Medicine: a Series of Articles Linking Medicine with Science. American Coolege of Physician. Ann Intern Med, 139:761-776.

Pawlow AP & Jones GE. 2005. The Impact of Abbreviated Proggressive Muscle Relaxation on Salivary Cortisol and Salivary Immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(4): 375-387.

Poth PT, Sica DA. 2005. Clinical Challenges of Hypertension II, Oxford, USA: Atlas Medical Publishing Ltd., pages: 43-48.

Whitworth JA, et al. 2005. Cardiovascular Consequences of Cortisol Excess. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2005 Dec; 1(4): 291299.


  • There are currently no refbacks.