Effect of Aquarobic and Weight Training on Cortisol Levels in Obese Women

Siti Baitul Mukarromah, Hardhono Susanto, Tandiyo Rahayu


Exercise is physical stress which potentially causes disruption of homeostasis, especially in sports that is excessively done. Weight Training (LB) and Aquarobic Exercise (LA) can be modulators of handling stress. This research aims at investigating the effect of the difference between LB and LA to physical stress in obese women. The study was conducted in 2014. The method used in this study was randomized experimental pretest-posttest control group design in 36 obese women, aged 45-50 years who were divided into 3 groups, group LB 50% RM, 3 sets, 12 repetition, treatment two times a day for 8 weeks (n = 12), LA 75% HRmax, treatment 2 days for 8 weeks (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). Body Mass Index (BMI) and cortisol levels were measured before and after the treatment. Hypothesis testing was conducted using test (One-Way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) and the mean difference test (Tukey HSD and Mann Whitneys). The results of BMI is increased in the WT group and is decreased in LA group as compared to control group (p <0.05). The decrease of cortisol level is higher than in LA and LB group and controls (p <0.05). LB and LA affect the physical stress that is characterized by the increase in cortisol levels in obese women. Conclusion: LB is more dominant than LA in increasing physical stress.

Full Text:



Abd El-Kader, S.M., 2011. Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Training in Modulation of Insulin Resistance, Adipocytokines and Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Journal of Advanced Research, 2(2),179183.

Astracane, V.D.A.C., 2007. Exercise and Humoral Mediators of Peripheral Energy Balance: Ghrelin and Adiponectin. 184194.

Azizi, M., Rahmani-nia, F. & Mohebbi, H., 2012. Cortisol Responses and Energy Expenditure at Different Times of Day in Obese Vs . Lean Men. , 6(3).314320.

Beaven, C.M. et al, 2008. Dose Effect of Caffeine on Testosterone and Cortisol Responses to Resistance Exercise. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 18.13141.

Berg.K.Kupzyk et al, 2009. The Effect of Weight Training on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors with Bone Loss : a 24-month randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int.

Burd, N. a et al, 2009. Exercise training and protein metabolism: influences of contraction, protein intake, and sex-based differences. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 106(5).1692701.

Crowley, V.E.F., 2008. Overview of Human Obesity and Central Mechanisms Regulating Energy Homeostasis. Annals of clinical biochemistry, 45(Pt 3). 24555.

Dahlan MS, 2006. Besar sampel dalam penelitian Kedokteran dan Kesehatan, Jatinangor: Alqa Print.

Deuster, P. 2005. Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone and Alprazolam on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Responses to Exercise. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(8).47774783.

Han, G., Cho, B. & Young, M.T., 2011. Endurance Exercise Reduces Oxidative Stress in Mice. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 23(4).539541.

Haussmann, M.F., Vleck, C.M. & Farrar, E.S., 2007. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Increased Salivary Cortisol in Response to Three Stressful Conditions Using Competitive ELISA. Advances in physiology education, 31.110115.

Holmes, M.E., Ekkekakis, P. & Eisenmann, J.C., 2010. The Physical Activity, Stress and Metabolic Syndrome Triangle: A Guide to Unfamiliar Territory for the Obesity Researcher. Obesity Reviews, 11(7) 492507.

Kim, M.-K. et al, 2009. Aerobic exercise Training Reduces Epicardial Fat in Obese Men. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 106(1).511.

Kraemer, R.R., Castracane, V.D. & Astracane, V.D.A.C., 2007. Experimental Biology and Medicine.

Laye, M.J. et al, 2010. Cessation of Daily Wheel Running Differentially Alters Fat Oxidation Capacity in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissue.161168.

Liao, Y.-H. et al, 2013. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Administration on Recovery from Mix-Type Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Damage. European journal of applied physiology, 113(1).99107.

Lcio, M. et al, 2013. The Effects of 16 Weeks of Exercise on Metabolic Parameters, Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index and Functional Autonomy in Elderly Women 1Mr. International SportMed Journal, 14(2). 8693.

Manning, K., 2011. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Oxidation in Untrained Overweight and Obese Females,

Miyata, T., Tanaka, S. & Yamazaki, T., 2011. Effects of Walking and Weight-bearing Exercise on Soleus Muscle in Hindlimb-Suspended Rat. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 23(3).385389.

Moore, A. et al, 2005. Strenuous, Fatiguing Exercise: Relationship of Cortisol to Circulating Thyroid Hormones. Int J Endocrinol Metab, 1. 1824.

Mosavat, M., Mohamed, M. & Mirsanjari, M.O., 2013. Effect of Exercise on Reproductive Hormones in Female Athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Science, 5(1).712.

Punyadeera, C. et al, 2005. The effects of exercise and Adipose Tissue Lipolysis on Plasma Adiponectin Concentration and Adiponectin Receptor Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle. European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies, 152(3).42736.

Ramudu, K. et al, 2008. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Postexercise GLUT-4 Protein Expression in Skeletal Muscle. Chinese Journal of Physiology, 48(1).2329.

Reid, I.R., 2008. Relationships between Fat and Bone. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 19(5).595606.

Rose, A.J. & Richter, E. a, 2009. Regulatory Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover During Exercise. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 106(5).17021711.

Scott, J.P.R. et al, 2011. The Role of Exercise Intensity in the Bone Metabolic Response to an Acute Bout of Weight-Bearing Exercise. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 110(52).423432.

Sherwood, 2001. Fisiologi Manusia dari Sel ke Sistem, Jakarta: ECG.

Sorichter, S. et al, 2012. Skeletal Troponin I as a Marker of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Skeletal Troponin I as a Marker of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.10761082.

Sugiharto, 2012. Fisioneurohormonal Pada Stresor Olahraga. Jurnal Sains Psikologi, 2. 5466.

Tartibian, B., Maleki, B.H. & Abbasi, A., 2010. The Calciotropic Hormone Response to Omega-3 Supplementation During Long- Term Weight-Bearing Exercise Training in Post Menopausal Women. 245252.

Vink, N.M. et al, 2013. Basal or Stress-Induced Cortisol and Asthma Development: The trails study. European Respiratory Journal, 41(4). 846852.

Westerlind, K.C. et al, 2012. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training on Cortical and Cancellous Bone in Mature Male Rats Exercise Mice Mice Effect of Resistance Exercise Training on Cortical and Cancellous Bone in Mature Male Rats. J Appl Physiol. 459464.

William M. Denning, 2010. The Effects of Aquatic Exercises on Physiological and Biomechanical Respons, Utah State University.


  • There are currently no refbacks.