Kedaulatan Negara vis a vis Keistimewaan dan Kekebalan Hukum Organisasi Internasional dalam Sebuah Intervensi Kemanusiaan

Lesza Leonardo Lombok


Perkembangan organisasi internasional yang dimulai dengan pengakuan terhadap variasinya pada sekitaran 1945 dikenal sebagai salah satu perkembangan Hukum Internasional yang membuka aturan baru dunia internasional, dan aspek yang paling sering menjadi perdebatan tentang keberadaannya adalah ketentuan tentang keistimewaan dan kekebalan. Munculnya doktrin Responsibility To Protect, menjadikan fondasi teoritis Hukum Internasional yang telah diterima secara umum selama berabad abad semakin rapuh. Problem terbesarnya secara jelas adalah pada tataran kedaulatan negara. Organisasi internasional yang melakukan berbagai aktivitas dengan membawa kepentingan negara, semakin memperjelas polemik penerimaan intervensi kemanusiaan dalam sebuah negara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan tantangan bagi organisasi internasional dalam sebuah intervensi kemanusiaan tersebut ketika berhadapan dengan Negara-negara tersebut, dan mengemukakan urgensi perlunya keistimewaan dan kekebalan untuk diberikan terhadapnya. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian hukum normatif, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa indikasi pelemahan terhadap kedaulatan, yang direfleksikan misalnya dalam doktrin Responsibility to Protect, tidak akan selalu menambah pertentangan terhadap konsep kedaulatan tradisional yang absolut, namun justru akan memberikan beberapa kemungkinan bagi beberapa negara tertentu untuk memproyeksikan kedaulatan dan kepentingannya secara global. Dengan perumusan kembali konsepsi kedaulatan kepada konsep yang relational atau terbuka, serta semakin besarnya peran organsasi internasional dalam masyarakat internasional baik sebagai treaty makers maupun law makers, maka pemberian keistimewaan dan kekebalan terhadap organisasi internasional semakin penting untuk menjamin pelaksanaan tugas tugasnya.

The development of international organization that began with the recognition of its variations around 1945 was known as one of the development of international law that opens new international rules, and the most often debated aspect is about the provision of privileges and immunities. The emergence of the doctrine of Responsibility To Protect makes the theoretical foundations of international law which has been generally accepted for many centuries become more fragile. The biggest problem is clearly at the level of state sovereignty. International Organizations that developed activities brought by states interest, clarify the polemic of the acceptance of a humanitarian intervention. This paper aims to discuss the challenges of international organizations in a humanitarian intervention dealing with these states, and deliver the urgency of a privilege and immunities to them.. By using normative legal research method, this study concluded that the indication of the weakening of the sovereignty, which is reflected for example in the doctrine of the Responsibility To Protect, will not necessarily add to the opposition to the traditional concept of absolute sovereignty, but it will provide possibilities for some countries to project its sovereignty and interests globally. By re-formulate the concept of sovereignty to a relational sovereignty, and the bigger the role of international organizations in the international community as a treaty-makers as well as law-makers, then the privilege and immunities to an international organizations should be applied to assure its functions.

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