Urgensi Penemuan Vaksin Covid-19 sebagai Hak Milik Publik

Nynda Fatmawati Octarina, Evi Kongres, Mardika Mardika

Abstract


Penemuan Vaksin COVID-19 tidak terlepas dari keuntungan (benefits), baik berupa hak ekonomi maupun hak moral yang diperoleh inventor atau penemunya, dan itu berkaitan dengan permohonan atau pendaftaran paten. Artikel ini membahas mengenai konsekuensi paten beserta hak eksklusifnya yang dianggap sebagai hambatan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan Vaksin COVID-19 bagi semua orang. Penelitian ini menggunakan tipe penelitian yuridis-normatif, yang mencoba memecahkan permasalahan dengan menggunakan berbagai instrumen hukum melalui pendekatan perundang-undangan (statute approach) dan pendekatan konseptual (conceptual approach). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pentingnya dilakukan analisis mengenai adanya perbenturan antara kepentingan individu dan kepentingan publik dalam usaha penemuan Vaksin COVID-19. Pada akhirnya, penemuan Vaksin COVID-19 memang seyogyanya menjadi hak milik publik demi kepentingan kesehatan masyarakat global, maka pemerintah ataupun negara-negara dunia diharapkan menentukan apa dan bagaimana kebijakan yang sebaiknya dilakukan untuk mempercepat akses Vaksin COVID-19 secara adil dan merata, namun tetap mengakui keberadaan hak paten di dalamnya.

The discovery of the COVID-19 Vaccine cannot be separated from the benefits, both in the form of economic rights and moral rights obtained by the inventor, and that related to patent application or registration. This article discusses the consequences of the patents and their exclusive rights which are considered obstacles in fulfilling the need for a COVID-19 Vaccine for everyone. The study uses juridical-normative research, which tries to solve problems using various legal instruments through a statute approach and conceptual approach. The result shows the importance of conducting an analysis of the conflict of interest between individual (private) interests and public interests in the discovery of the COVID-19 Vaccine should indeed belong to the public. In the last, the discovery of the COVID-19 Vaccine should indeed become public domain in the interests of global public health, so the government or world countries are expected to determine what and how policies should be implemented to accelerate access to the COVID-19 Vaccine fairly and equitably, but still recognize the patent rights in it.


Keywords


Paten; Penemuan; Vaksin COVID-19

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/pandecta.v16i1.28997

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