COPD Symptoms and Risk Factors of Respiratory Disorders in Builders

Amelia Lorensia(1), Rivan Virlando Suryadinata(2), Kadek Yuli Dwi Savitri(3),

(1) Universitas Surabaya


Decreased lung function is at risk for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Risk identification is a strategy to improve the quality of self-management, through the identification of risk factors and early symptoms of COPD. This study aims to determine the relationship between risk factors and early symptoms of COPD in builders related to pulmonary function disorders. The design of this study was case control in Rungkut District, Surabaya in September-December 2018. The research variables were lung function disorders, risk factors and early symptoms of COPD, with ordinal data scale and chi-square test analysis. This study involved 158 respondents consisting of 79 respondents with lung function disorders and 79 respondents with no lung function disorders. The highest total risk factor for COPD in both groups was smoking, and there was no significant difference (P = 0.75) on the early symptoms of COPD in the pulmonary dysfunction group and in the group with no lung function disorders. The highest total initial symptoms of COPD in both groups were chronic cough and sputum hypersecretion. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 1.00). There was no relationship between COPD risk factors and early symptoms of COPD in the pulmonary dysfunction group and the no lung function group.


COPD, builder, risk factors, early symptoms, pulmonary function

Full Text:



Ambrosino, N., Bertella, E., 2018. Lifestyle interventions in prevention and comprehensive management of COPD. Breathe (Sheff), 14(3), pp.186–94.

Assari, S., Mistry, R., 2018. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15(763), pp.1–12.

Ayaaba E., Li, Y., Yuan, J., Ni, C., 2017. Occupational Respiratory Diseases of Miners from Two Gold Mines in Ghana. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 14(337), pp.1–14.

Chandy, D., Aronow, W.S., Banach, M., 2013. Current perspectives on treatment of hypertensive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Integr Blood Press Control, 6, pp.101–9.

Dare, S., Mackay, D.F., Pell, J.P., 2015. Relationship between Smoking and Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study of 499,504 Middle-Aged Adults in the UK General Population. PLoS One, 10(4), e0123579.

Dixit, D., Bridgeman, M.B., Madduri, R.P., Kumar, S.T., Cawley, M.J., 2016. Pharmacological Management and Prevention Of Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Hospitalized Patients. P&T, 41(11), pp.703–12.

Enshassi, A., Kochendoerfer, B., Rizq, E., 2014. An evaluation of environmental impacts of construction projects. Revista ingeniería de construcción, 29(3), pp.234–54.

Franssen, F.M., Alter, P., Bar, N., Benedikter, B.J., Lurato, S., Maier, D., et al., 2019. Personalized medicine for patients with COPD: where are we?. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 14, pp.1465–84.

Global Initiated For Chronic Lung Disease (GOLD)., 2019. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive.

Habybabady, R.H., Sis, H.N., Paridokht, F., Ramrudinasab, F., Behmadi, A., Khosravi, B., Mohammadi, M., 2018. Effects of Dust Exposure on the Respiratory Health Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Street Sweepers. Malays J Med Sci, 25(6), pp.76–84.

Jiang, X.Q., Mei, X.D., Feng, D., 2016. Air pollution and chronic airway diseases: what should people know and do?. J Thorac Dis, 8(1), pp.E31–40.

Kahnert, K., Lucke, T., Huber, R.M., Behr, J., Biertz, F., Vogt, A., et al., 2017. Relationship of hyperlipidemia to comorbidities and lung function in COPD: Results of the COSYCONET cohort. PLoS One, 12(5), e0177501.

Kim, V., Criner, G.J., 2013. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 187(3), pp.228–37.

Kim, D., Chen, Z., Zhou, L.F., Huang, S.X., 2018. Air pollutants and early origins of respiratory diseases. Chronic Dis Transl Med, 4(2), pp.75–94.

Lorensia, A., Ikawati, Z., Andayani, T.M., Maranatha, D., Amalia, R., 2019. Membandingkan Kejadian Gangguan Gastrointestinal Penggunaan Aminofilin dan Salbutamol Pada Pasien Eksaserbasi Asma Di Surabaya. Keluwih, 1(1), pp.1–10.

Lorensia, A., Suryadinata, R.V., 2018. Panduan Lengkap Penggunaan Macam-Macam Alat Inhaler pada Gangguan Pernafasan. Surabaya: CV M-Brothers Indonesia.

Lowery, E.M., Brubaker, A.L., Kuhlmann, E., Kovacs, E.J., 2013. The aging lung. Clin Interv Aging, 8, pp.1489–96.

Nuttall, F.Q., 2015. Body Mass Index: Obesity, BMI, and Health: A Critical Review. Nutrition Research, 50(3), pp.117–28.

Oemiati, R., 2013. Epidemiologic Study of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Media Litbangkes, 23(2), pp.82–8.

Peng, Y., Li, X., Cai, S., Chen, Y., Dai, W., Liu, W., et al., 2018. Prevalence and characteristics of COPD among pneumoconiosis patients at an occupational disease prevention institute: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 18(22), pp.1–10.

Piirtole, M., Jelenkovic, A., Latvala, A., Sund, R., Honda, C., Inui, F., et al., 2018, Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLoS One, 13(7), e0200140.

Riskesdas. 2018. Hasil Utama Riset Kesehatan Dasar Tahun 2018. Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indones. Halm. 1–100.

Schulz, M., Gerber, A., Groneberg, D.A., 2016. Are Filter-Tipped Cigarettes Still Less Harmful than Non-Filter Cigarettes?--A Laser Spectrometric Particulate Matter Analysis from the Non-Smokers Point of View. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(429), pp.1–11.

Teo, H.C., Lechner, A.M., Walton, G.W., Chan, F.K.S., Cheshmehzangi, A., Tan-Mullins, M., Chan, H.K., Sternbeg, T., Campos-Arceiz, A., 2019. Environmental Impacts of Infrastructure Development under the Belt and Road Initiative. Environments, 6(72), pp.1–22.

Thomas, E.T., Guppy, M., Straus, S.E., Bell, K.J.L., Glasziau, P., 2019. Rate of normal lung function decline in ageing adults: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open, 9(e028150), pp.1–13.

Vinnikov, D., Tulekov, Z., Raushanova, A., 2020. Occupational exposure to particulate matter from air pollution in the outdoor workplaces in Almaty during the cold season. PLoS One, 15(1), e0227447.

Wagner, P.D., 2015. The physiological basis of pulmonary gas exchange: implications for clinical interpretation of arterial blood gases. Eur Respir J, 45, pp.227–43.

Walker, S.L., Saltman, D.L., Colucci, R., Martin, L., 2010. Canadian Lung Association Advisory Committee. Awareness of risk factors among persons at risk for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea: a Canadian population-based study. Can Respir J, 17(6), pp.287–94.

Watanabe, N., Fukushima, M., Taniguchi, A., Okumura, T., Yoshio-Nomura, Nishimura, F., et al., 2011. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Tobacco Induced Diseases,9(12), pp.1–6.

Yan, H., Ding, G., Li, H., Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Shen, Q., Feng, K., 2019. Field Evaluation of the Dust Impacts from Construction Sites on Surrounding Areas: A City Case Study in China. Sustainability, 11(1906), pp.1–19.

Yawn, B.P., Wollan, P., Rank, M., 2013. Exacerbations in the pre- and post-COPD diagnosis periods. Pragmatic and Observational Research, 4, pp.1–6.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.