The Principle of Non-Refoulement as Jus Cogens: History, Application, and Exception in International Refugee Law

Main Article Content

Muhammad Alvi Syahrin


The existence of the principle of non-refoulement is a necessity and has been institutionalized in the various international legal instruments such as conventions, declarations and in customary international law. Non-refoulement principle is a fundamental concept and considered as the backbone for the entire international refugee legal system. That principle is an international legal norm that has been recognized and affirmed by the international community in multilateral international conventions and other relevant international legal instruments. This principle is very basic in the international protection system for refugees and asylum seekers and cannot be distracted by states in international relations. International organizations also recognize and apply the principle of non-refoulement consistently. The consequence is that states, both invidually and collectively, must not violate this principle. Based on legal procedures, a country can take different actions with the obligation to implement the non-refoulement principle.

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How to Cite
Syahrin, M. A. (2021). The Principle of Non-Refoulement as Jus Cogens: History, Application, and Exception in International Refugee Law. JILS (Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies), 6(1), 53-82.
Research Articles
Author Biography

Muhammad Alvi Syahrin, Immigration Polytechnic Jakarta

Alvi Syahrin, is Law and Immigration Expert at Directorate General of Immigration (Ministry of Law and Human Rights, Indonesia). His current research focuses on Forced Migration, International Refugee, Border Security, Law and Development. Currently is a Head of Research Center at Immigration Polytechnic. Some of his works have been published on several journals both national and international journal, such as Dialectics of Detention Implementation in The Immigration Investigation Process of OAC cs Case (Jurnal Ilmiah Kajian Keimigrasian, 2021), The Protection of Refugees and Asylum Seekers Based on Human Rights: Legal and Political Perspective in Indonesia (The 13th Human Rights in Asia Conference, 2021), and Immigration and the Law: A Study of Theory and Multidimensional Analysis (Kader Bangsa Law Review, 2020).


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