The Position of Indegenous People in the Culture and Tourism Developments: Comparing Indonesia and East Timor Tourism Laws and Policies

Main Article Content

Dewa Gede Sudika Mangku
Ni Putu Rai Yuliartini
Ruslan Ruslan
Seguito Monteiro
Dahlan Surat


The expansion of development brings many impacts, including in the discourse of indigenous peoples in the midst of tourism development. On the one hand, culture and indigenous peoples are the main pillars in the use of culture-based tourism such as in Bali, Indonesia, but on the other hand, tourism development raises questions about legal protection for indigenous peoples. This study aims to analyze and compare various laws and policies in tourism development in Bali (Indonesia) and Atauro (Timor Leste) and the position of indigenous peoples in the midst of various tourism policies. By comparing several related policies, this research found and confirmed that existing cultural arrangements were limited to the cultural identity of indigenous peoples and as a tourist attraction for Indonesia, but there are no regulations that give a definition of culture as an economic resource. In Timor Leste, Ecotourism management in Beloi Village is still far from the plan. The government as policy makers and facilitators impressed walk alone in terms of management tourist.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mangku, D. G. S., Yuliartini, N. P. R., Ruslan, R., Monteiro, S., & Surat, D. (2022). The Position of Indegenous People in the Culture and Tourism Developments: Comparing Indonesia and East Timor Tourism Laws and Policies. Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies, 7(1), 57-100.
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Dewa Gede Sudika Mangku, Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

Dewa Gede Sudika Mangku is a Lecturer at the Department of Law, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia. His area of expertise concerning International Law, Comparative Law, Law and Society, as well as Law and Culture. He obtained Bachelor of Law from Universitas Arilangga, Suarabaya Indonesia, and Mester and Doctoral Degree from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Some of his recent publications such as Crimes of Genocide in the Viewpoint of International Criminal Law (Indonesian Journal of Criminal Law Studies, 2022), Analysis of Diplomatic Law in Lifting the Honorary Consul of The State of Indonesia To Palestine (Jurnal Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan Undiksha, 2022), The Role of the National Agency for Border Management in Maintaining the Territorial Sovereignty in the Land Bord between Indonessia and Timor Leste (Ahmad Dahlan International Conference on Law and Social Justice), and Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Tari Tradisional Sebagai Warisan Budaya Bangsa Indonesia Ditinjau dari Hukum Internasional (Jurnal Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan Undiksha, 2021). Now, he also serving as Head of Department of Law at the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia.

Ni Putu Rai Yuliartini, Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

Ni Putu Rai Yuliarti is a Lecturer at the Department of Law, Ganesha University of Education, Bali-Indonesia. She has taught and researched in the fields of Law, Human Rights and Development, Sociology of Law, etc. She obtained Bachelor and Master Degree from Faculty of Law, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Some of her works have been published on several journals such as Ratifikasi Terhadap Traktat Persetujuan Paris (Paris Agreement) Sebagai Wujud Implementasi Komitmen Indonesia dalam Upaya Mitigasi dan Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim (Jurnal Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan Undiksha, 2022), Analysis of Workload, Rest Rights, and The Rights to Enjoy Entertainment in Gender Differences (Jurnal Komunikasi Hukum, 2022), and Indigenous Peoples' Participation in the Management of Balinese Cultural Tourism (Legality: Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum, 2021).

Ruslan Ruslan, Universitas Syiah Kuala

Ruslan is a Lecturer at the Department of Citizenship Education, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh-Indonesia. He has taught and researched in the fields of Law and Citizenship Education. He was born in Tanjung Balai, Asahan, on February 3rd, 1976. Graduated with bachelor degree of Civics Education, Faculty of Teacher Education of Syiah Kuala University in 2001. Continued and graduated with master degree of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) in 2011. He was appointed as a lecturer at Universitas Syiah Kuala since 2003. He obtained a Doctoral Degree of Education of Social Sciences from Postgraduate Program of Syiah Kuala University. In addition, he also passed the certification as a lecturer in 2013 with Educational Psychology expertise. Currently he also serving as a member of the SJMF at the Faculty of Teacher Education for the second term.

Seguito Monteiro, Faculty of Law, Universidade Dili

Seguito Monteiro is a Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Dili (Universidade Dili), Timor Leste. He has taught and researched in the fields of International Law.

Dahlan Surat, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Dahlan Surat is a Lecturer at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor-Malaysia


Aji, Adiguna Bagas Waskito, Puji Wiyatno, Ridwan Arifin, and Ubaidillah Kamal. “Social Justice on Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia: The Contemporary and Controversial Cases”. The Indonesian Journal of International Clinical Legal Education 2, No. 1 (2020): 57-72.

Arifin, Ridwan. “Human Rights Aspect on Natural Resources Issue in Indonesia”. Law Research Review Quarterly 1, No. 3 (2015): 160-174.

Arthanti, Berliana, and Nabilla Eka Pramudhita. “Law and Human Rights in Addressing Labor Problems During the Pandemic to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals”. Lex Scientia Law Review 4, No. 2 (2020): 39-54.

Asri, Dyah Permata Budi. "Legal Protection of Culture Through UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Jurnal Hukum Ius Quia Iustum 25, No. 2 (2018): 256–276.

Barber, Charles Victor. The State, the Environment, and Development: The Genesis and Transformation of Social Forestry Policy in New Order Indonesia (University of California, Berkeley, 1989).

Bendesa, I K G, and I M Sukarsa. "An Economic Survey of Bali". Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 16, No. 2 (1980): 31–53.

Budarma, I Ketut, and Ketut Suarta. "The Role of Local Value in Global Sustainable Tourism Development Paradigm. The Case of Tourism in Bali"., Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism 2, No. 1 (2017): 218–233.

Budi, Fenny, and Rahayu Subekti. “Aspek Hukum Pemanfaatan Hutan Lindung Untuk Tempat Wisata”. Jurnal Komunikasi Hukum (JKH) 7, No. 2 (2021): 540-549.

Budiasa, I Wayan, and IGAA Ambarawati. "Community Based Agro-Tourism as an Innovative Integrated Farming System Development Model towards Sustainable Agriculture and Tourism in Bali". Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences 20, No. 1 (2014): 29–40.

Cole, Stroma. "A Political Ecology of Water Equity and Tourism: A Case Study from Bali". Annals of Tourism Research 39, No. 2 (2012): 1221–1241.

De Silva, S Sarath Mathilal. "Linking Human Rights and the Environment", Daily News, retrieved from <> (2016).

Dewi, Anak Agung Istri Atu, Cokorda Dalem Dahana, I Gede Agus Kurniawan, Putri Triari Dwijayanthi, and Dewa Gede Sudika Mangku. "Strengthening The Economy of Desa Adat Based on Local Resources: Strategy And Regulation Context". Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 24, No. 4 (2021): 1–9.

Elson, Diane. "Gender Justice, Human Rights, and Neo-Liberal Economic Policies". Gender Justice, Development and Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 78–114.

Erviana, Leni. "Makna Sesajen Dalam Ritual Tilem Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Kehidupan Sosial Keagamaan (Studi Pada Umat Hindu di Desa Bali Sadhar Tengah Kecamatan Banjit Kabupaten Way Kanan)". Thesis (Lampung: UIN Raden Intan, 2017).

Firmansyah, Ade Arif, Iwan Satriawan, Siti Khoiriah, and Yusnani Hasyimzoem. Hukum Pemerintahan Daerah. (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2017).

Francillon, Gérard. Bali: Tourism, Culture, Environment. (UNESCO, 1979).

Geriya, I Wayan. Pariwisata dan Dinamika Kebudayaan Lokal, Nasional Global: Bunga Rampai Antropologi Pariwisata (Denpasar: Upada Sastra, 1995).

Geriya, I Wayan. "The Impact of Tourism in Three Tourist Villages in Bali." in Globalization in Southeast Asia: Local, National, and Transnational Perspectives. (New York: Bengham Books, 2003).

Giantari, I Gusti Ayu Ketut, Ida Bagus Ketut Surya, Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa, and Ida Bagus Anom Yasa. “Development and Revitalization Strategies for Traditional Markets in Bali.” International Journal of Social Economics 45, No. 7 (2018): 1058-1070.

Hampton, Mark P. "Heritage, Local Communities and Economic Development". Annals of Tourism Research 32, No. 3 (2005): 735–759.

Genta, I Nyoman Yatna Dwipayana and I Made Sarjana. "Pengaturan Kearifan Lokal Dalam Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Bali Nomor 2 Tahun 2012 Tentang Kepariwisataan Budaya Bali". Kertha Negara: Journal Ilmu Hukum 4, No. 2 (2016): 1-5.

Kartika, I Gusti Ayu Putri. "Pengaturan Hukum Dan Penegakan Hukum Terhadap Benda Cagar Budaya di Propinsi Bali." Thesis (Surabaya: Universitas Airlangga, 2003).

Kasih, Desak Putu Dewi, Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan, Ida Bagus Wyasa Putra, Kadek Agus Sudiarawan, and Ayu Suci Rakhima. "The Exploitation of Indigenous Communities by Commercial Actors: Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expression". Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies 8, No. 4 (2021): 91–109.

Laksana, Adi, and Ida Bagus. Pedoman dalam Pengembangan Desa Wisata di Provinsi Bali. (Dinas Pariwisata Provinsi Bali, Denpasar, 2017).

Law, Alexandra, Terry De Lacy, Geoffrey Lipman, and Min Jiang. "Transitioning to a Green Economy: The Case of Tourism in Bali, Indonesia". Journal of Cleaner Production 111 (2016): 295–305.

Long, Veronica H, and Sara L Kindon. "Gender and Tourism Development in Balinese Villages", in Gender, Work and Tourism (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 99–128.

Muchsin, Muchsin. "Perlindungan dan Kepastian Hukum bagi Investor di Indonesia", Thesis (Surakarta, Universitas Sebelas Maret, 2003).

Mudana, I Gede, Ni Made Ernawati, and Mihai Voda. "Analysis of the Evolving Cultural Tourism Implementation in Bali Indonesia". Multicultural Education 7, No. 6 (2021): 608-619.

Mulyadin, Mohammad, and Priasukmana Soetarso. "Pembangunan Desa Wisata: Pelaksanaan Undang-undang Otonomi Daerah." Info Sosial Ekonomi 2 No. 1 (2001): 37-44.

Picard, Michel, and Robert E Wood. Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1997).

Picard, Michel. Bali: Pariwisata Budaya dan Budaya Pariwisata (Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, 2006).

Poffenberger, Mark, and Mary S Zurbuchen. "The Economics of Village Bali: Three Perspectives". Economic Development and Cultural Change 29, No. 1 (1980): 91–133.

Purniawati, Purniawati, Nikmatul Kasana, and Rodiyah Rodiyah. “Good Environmental Governance in Indonesia (Perspective of Environmental Protection and Management)”. The Indonesian Journal of International Clinical Legal Education 2, No. 1 (2020): 43-56.

Purwandoko, Prasetyo Hadi, Adi Sulistiyono and M. Hawin. "The Implementation of the Traditional Cultural Expression (TCE) Protection in Indonesia Based on Article 38 Law Number 28 of 2014 regarding Copyright". Indonesian Journal of International Law 18, No. 4 (2021).

Republic of Indonesia. Bali Provincial Regional Regulation No. 2 of 2012 concerning Bali Cultural Tourism, Bali Provincial Regional Gazette of 2012 Number 2, Additional Bali Provincial Regional Gazette Number 2 (Provinsi Bali, 2012).

Republic of Indonesia. Bali Provincial Regulation No. 10 of 2015 concerning the Master Plan for Tourism Development of Bali Province 2015-2029 (Provinsi Bali, 2015).

Republic of Indonesia. Government Regulation No. 50 of 2011 concerning the National Tourism Development Master Plan 2010-2025 (Jakarta: Sekretariat Negara, 2011).

Republic of Indonesia. Law No. 10 of 2009 on Tourism. State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2009 Number 11, Supplementary State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 4996 (Jakarta: Sekretariat Negara, 2009).

Roth, Dik. "Environmental Sustainability and Legal Plurality in Irrigation: The Balinese Subak". Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 11 (2014): 1–9

Rouse, Michael J. Institutional Governance and Regulation of Water Services (London: IWA Publishing, 2013).

Shepherd, Robert. "Commodification, Culture and Tourism". Tourist Studies 2, No. 2 (2002): 183–201.

Sriyono, Sriyono, and Amin Purnawan. "Legal Protection Of Participants Applications for Land Certificates Through Complete Systematic Land Registration (PTSL) in Blora Regency." Jurnal Daulat Hukum 3, No. 1 (2020): 171–178.

Sugiartha, Gede, Putu Budiartha, and Minggu Widyantara. "Environmental Management Regulation for Sustainable Tourism Development in Bali". Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 24, No. 6 (2021): 1–11.

Wardani, Winda Indah. “How Can the Law Protect the Forest?”. Journal of Law and Legal Reform 2, No. 4 (2021): 527-538.

Wasonga, Joseph. "National Heritages, Global Capital Accumulation and Collective Socioeconomic Impact: A Critique of Tourism Industry in Kenya". Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends 8, No. 2 (2015): 55–77.

Widiatedja, IGN Parikesit. "Towards Liberalization of Services in ASEAN: Challenges and Opportunities of Asean Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS) on Tourism". Indonesian Journal of International Law 10, No. 1, (2012).

World Tourism Organization. International Tourism: A Global Perspective. (Madrid: World Tourism Organization, 1997).

Yanti, A. A. Istri Eka Krisna. "Kewenangan Pengelolaan Desa Wisata dalam Perspektif Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Bali Nomor 4 Tahun 2019 Tentang Desa Adat di Bali". Kerta Dyatmika 16, No. 2 (2012): 59–68.

Yanti, A.A. Istri Eka Krisna. "Community Based Tourism dalam Menyongsong New Normal Desa Wisata Bali”. Jurnal Komunikasi Hukum (JKH) 7, No. 1 (2021) :72-86.