The Idea of Customary Law Community Representation in the Regional Representative Council Constitutional Law, Customary Law

Main Article Content

Iwan Erar Joesoef


The Customary Law Community (Masyarakat Hukum Adat, MHA) as part of the Customary Law System is recognized for its existence and its implementation in the National Land Law (Hukum Tanah Nasional, HTN). In the Explanation of the Basic Agrarian Law (UUPA) it is stated that the function of Customary Law as the main source in the development of HTN, although such recognition is accompanied by conditions as long as in reality they still exist and in accordance with national and state interests. This paper analyses and examines the problems of MHA in the concept of regional representative council. The problem on this paper come up from various problems concerning to ulayat land and its conflict between indigenous people and government. The research emphasized that  the main problem is the inequality of perception between the Executive, Judiciary and Legislative institutions in the consistency of compensation payments resulting in the re-claim of Tanah Ulayat (Adat), there is no basis for a multi-dimensional approach (anthropology, sociology and others besides the juridical approach). This means that the formal juridical approach alone does not achieve effective results. The question is whether the constitutional MHA can have representation in the Regional Representative Council (DPD) and what forms of democracy are appropriate and can channel the aspirations of the MHA.

Article Details

How to Cite
Joesoef, I. E. (2020). The Idea of Customary Law Community Representation in the Regional Representative Council. Unnes Law Journal, 6(1), 119-142.
Research Article


Asshiddiqie, J. (1994). Gagasan Kedaulatan Rakyat dalam Konstitusi dan Pelaksanaannya di Indonesia. Jakarta: PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve.

Atiyah, P.S. (1995). An Introduction to the Law of Contract. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.

Atmaja, G. M. W. (2012). Politik Pluralisme Hukum dalam Pengakuan Kesatuan Masyarakat Hukum Adat dengan Peraturan Daerah. Dissertation. Malang: Universitas Brawijaya.

Budiono, H. (2015). Asas Keseimbangan Bagi Hukum Perjanjian Indonesia-Hukum Perjanjian Indonesia. Bandung: Penerbit PT Citra Aditya Bakti.

Convention 169: Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (1989), International Labor Organization (ILO).

Cooter, R., & Ulen, T. (2000). Law and Economics, Third Edition. USA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

FH UGM & BPN (1997). Research Report on Study of Land Customary Law in Irian Jaya, Collaboration between FH UGM and BPN in 1997.

Freeman, M.D.A. (2001). Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence, Seventh Edition. London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd.

Harsono, B. (1997). Hukum Agraria Indonesia, SejarahPembenukan Undang-Undang Pokok Agraria, Isi dan Pelaksanaannya. Jakarta: Penerbit Djambatan.

Hviid, M., Bouckaert, B., & De Geest, G., eds. (2000). Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. New York: Springer.

ILO Convention 107: Concerning the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries (1957).

Kelsen, H. (2007). Teori Umum Hukum dan Negara, Dasar-dasar Ilmu Hukum Normatif Sebagai Ilmu Hukum Deskriptif-Empirik, Domardi (trans). Jakarta: Bee Media Indonesia.

Mas’oed, M., & Andrews, C. M. (1982). Perbandingan Sistem Politik. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Ménard, C., &, Ghertman, M., eds. (2009). Regulation, deregulation, reregulation: institutional perspectives. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Montesquieu, M. (2007). The Spirit of Laws, Dasar-dasar Ilmu Hukum dan Ilmu Politik, M. Khoiril Anam (trans). Bandung: Nusa Media.

Nugraha, S., (2005). Hukum Administrasi Negara. Jakarta: Badan Penerbit FHUI.

Recommendation 104: ILO Recommendation Concerning the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries (1957).

Republic of Indonesia. (2014). Law No. 17 of 2014 concerning the People’s Consultative Assembly, the People’s Representative Council, the Regional Representative Council and the Regional People's Representative Council.

Republic of Indonesia. (1945). The 1945 Constitution of Republic of Indonesia.

Republic of Indonesia. (2001). TAP MPR No. IX/MPR/2001 concerning Agrarian Reform and Natural Resource Management.

Republic of Indonesia. (1997). Law No. 23 of 1997 concerning Environmental Management.

Republic of Indonesia. (1999). Law No. 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights.

Republic of Indonesia. (1999). Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry.

Republic of Indonesia. (2000). Law No. 25 of 2000 concerning the National Development Program (Propenas) of 2000-2004.

Republic of Indonesia. (2001). Law No. 22 of 2001 concerning Oil and Gas.

Republic of Indonesia. (2002). Law No. 20 of 2002 concerning Electricity.

Republic of Indonesia. (2004). Law No. 7 of 2004 concerning Water Resources.

Republic of Indonesia. (2014). Law No. 39 of 2014 concerning Plantations.

Republic of Indonesia. (2004). Law No. 31 of 2004 concerning Fisheries.

Republic of Indonesia. (2004). Law No. 38 of 2004 concerning Roads.

Republic of Indonesia. (2007). Law No. 27 of 2007 concerning Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands.

Republic of Indonesia. (2001). Law No. 21 of 2001 concerning Special Autonomy for the Province of Papua.

Republic of Indonesia. (1960). Law Number 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles.

Republic of Indonesia. (1999). Regulation of the Minister of Agrarian Affairs/Head of National Land Agency No. 5 of 1999 concerning Guidelines for the Resolution of Customary Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992), (k). Technical Review of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, as Agreed Upon the Members of the Working Group at its Eleventh Session, UN Doc. E / CN.4 Sub.2 / 1994 / Add.1 (April 20, 1994).

Sumardjono, M. S. W. (2009). Tanah dalam Perspektif Hak Ekonomi Sosial dan Budaya. Jakarta: PT. Kompas Media Nusantara.

Sumardjono, M. S. W. (2018). Pluralisme Hukum, Sumber Daya Alam dan Keadilan dalam Pemanfaatan Tanah Ulayat. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Sumardjono, M. S. W. (2005). “Hak-hak Masyarakat Hukum Adat Melayu Riau tentang Hutan Tanah Ulayat”, Paper, presented at Seminar organized by the Riau Malay Customary Institution, Pekanbaru, 26-28 February 2005.

Sumardjono, M. S. W. (2004). “Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Law Society Adat”, Paper, presented at Seminar and Discussion organized by the National Human Rights Commission (Komnas HAM) in collaboration with the Indonesian Political Science Association (AIPI), Jakarta, on December 14, 2004.

Sumardjono, M. S. W. (2003). “Functions and Relationships of Institutional, Community and Private Institutions in the Context of Socio-Religious Pluralism and Communal Land Rights: The Papua Case”, Paper, presented at Discussion organized by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Jakarta, on 19-20 March 2003.

Ter Haar, B. (2017). Asas-Asas dan Susunan Hukum Adat, K. Ng. Soebakti Pesponoto (trans). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

The United Nations Charter (1945).

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime Genocide (1951).

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1966).

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).

Wignjodipoero, S. (2014). Pengantar dan Asas-asas Hukum Adat. Jakarta: PT Toko Gunung Agung.

Wignjosoebroto, S. (2202). Hukum, Paradigma, Metod dan Dinamika Masalahnya. Jakarta: ELSAM and HUMA.