Transformation of the Legislative System in Indonesia Based on the Principles of Good Legislation

Main Article Content

Martitah Martitah
Arif Hidayat
Rahayu Fery Anitasari
Malik Akbar Mulki Rahman
Triska Rahmatul Aini


The Constitutional Court’s decision (Number 91/PUU-XVIII/2020) on the Formal Examination of Law Number 11 of 2020, addressing Job Creation and the subsequent enactment of Law Number 13 of 2022, has catalyzed a profound transformation in Indonesia’s legal system. This legal evolution, explored in the context of the Transformation of the Legislative System in Indonesia Based on the Principles of Good Legislation, delves into the political dynamics of legislation leading to numerous Constitutional Court litigations. The quality of law formation is scrutinized in light of the principles of good legislation, emphasizing transparency, participation, effectiveness, and efficiency. The study assesses how the Indonesian parliament executes its legislative function and underscores the imperative for reformulating planning, institutions, and capacity. The article advocates for an expedited authorization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a crucial step toward digitizing legislation in the pursuit of a thoroughly transformed and principled legislative system.

Article Details

How to Cite
Martitah, M., Hidayat, A., Anitasari, R. F., Rahman, M. A. M., & Aini, T. R. (2023). Transformation of the Legislative System in Indonesia Based on the Principles of Good Legislation. Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies, 8(2), 545-594.
Research Articles


Abegunde, Or. “Legislature and Democratic Sustainability in Nigeria: History of Legislature in Nigeria”, International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies 3 No. 3 (2016): 228-232.

Aitken, Victoria E. "An exposition of legislative quality and its relevance for effective development." ProLaw Student Journal 2, No. 1 (2013): 1-43.

Anggoro, Heriyono A. “Konsep dan Perkembangan e-Parliament”, Online, October 1 (2020). Retrieved from

Arifin, Muchamad Zaenal, et al. "The Ratification of Omnibus Law: A Sign of Democratic Deconsolidation in Indonesia." JSW (Jurnal Sosiologi Walisongo) 6, No. 1 (2022): 13-28.

Arifin, Saru. "Post-Pandemic Legislation in Indonesia: A Virtual Platform for Future Legislative Options?." International Journal of Parliamentary Studies 2, No. 2 (2022): 240-262.

Arnstein, Sherry. "“A Ladder of Citizen Participation”: Journal of the American Institute of Planners (1969)." In The City Reader. (London: Routledge, 2020), pp. 290-302.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Ittai. "Mending the legislative process–the preliminaries." The Theory and Practice of Legislation 3, No. 3 (2015): 245-256.

Bell, Lauren C. "Obstruction in parliaments: a cross-national perspective." The Journal of Legislative Studies 24.4 (2018): 499-525.

Bentham, Jeremy. Theory of Legislation. (Trübner, 1871).

Berg, L. N. “Transformation of Legal Impact in the Context of the Modern Information and Technological Structure (Case Study of The Relations Connected with Genomic Information)”, SHS Web of Conferences 134, (2022): 00117.

Berg, Lyudmila. "The establishment of legal rules as an element of the system of legal influence: an instrumental approach." BRICS Law Journal 5, No. 3 (2018): 114-134.

Bogdanov, E.E. “Legal Problems and Risks of The Genetic Revolution: Genetic Information and Discrimination”, Lex Russica 151, No. 6 (2019): 18-29.

Bones, N., D. Levi-Faur, and G. Mother, “Legislation and Regulation: Three Analytical Distinctions”, The Theory and Practice of Legislation 7, No. 3 (2020): 169-174.

Busthami, Dachran S. "The Principles of Good Legislation Forming: A Critical Review." SIGn Jurnal Hukum 4, No. 2 (2022): 308-319.

Carbonara, Emanuela and Francesco Parisi, “The Paradox of Legal Harmonization”, Public Choice 132, No. 3/4 (2007): 367-400.

Ciftci, S., Walter Forrest, and Yusuf Alex, “Committee Assignments in a Nascent Party System: The Case of the Turkish Grand National Assembly”, International Political Science Review 29, No. 3 (2008): 305-306.

Den Dulk, Kevin R., and J. Mitchell Pickerill. "Bridging the lawmaking process: Organized interests, court-congress interaction, and church-state relations." Polity 35, No. 3 (2003): 419-440.

Dewinagara, Trisya Benazir, I. Gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayani, and Hari Purwadi. "The Omnibus Law Concept in the Job Creation Law and the Legal Consequences for Limited Liability Companies." SASI 28, No. 2 (2022): 323-335.

Dodek, Adam M. “Omnibus Bills: Constitutional Constraints and Legislative Liberations”, Ottawa Law Review 48, No. 1 (2017): 1-42.

Dorsey, Tobias A. “The Impact of Information Technology on Drafting Offices”, International Journal of Legislative Drafting and Law Reform 2, No. 1 (2012): 86-102.

Drinóczi, T. “Concept of Quality in Legislation-Revisited: Matter of Perspective and a General Overview”. Statute Law Review 36, No. 3 (2015): 211-223.

Fankhauser, Sam, Caterina Gennaioli, and Murray Collins. "The political economy of passing climate change legislation: Evidence from a survey." Global Environmental Change 35 (2015): 52-61.

Fitsilis, Fotios, D. Koryzis, and J. de D. Cincunegui. "Advanced Cooperative Digital Platforms for Parliaments." Global Conference on Parliamentary Studies (Global Parliamentary Studies). 2022.

Florin, Nico. “Quality of Legislation: A Law and Development Project” in J. Arnscheidt, B. of Rooij, J. M. Otto (eds.), Lawmaking for Development; Explorations into The Theory and Practice of International Legislative Projects, (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2008), pp. 75-89.

Friedberg, Chen. “From a Top-Down to a Bottom-Up Approach to Legislative Oversight”, Journal of Legislative Studies 17, No. 4 (2011): 525-528.

Gluck, R., A.J. O'Connell, and R. Po, “Unorthodox Lawmaking, Unorthodox Rulemaking”, Columbia Law Review 115, No. 7 (2015): 1789-1807.

Guignier, Armelle, and Alistair Rieu-Clarke, “Country Report: Vietnam Payment for Environmental Services”, IUCN Academy of Environmental Law Issue, No. 1 (2012): 251-258.

Habibova, Konul and Ella Zaretskaya, “Law and Legal Relations in the Digital Age”, SHS Web of Conferences 141, (2022): 01019.

Harryarsana, I Gusti Kade Budhi, Supardi Hamid, Paulus Israwan Setyoko, Denok Kurniasih, and Anggara Setya Saputra, “The Role of Omnibus Law Implementation on the Women Workers Protection: An Descriptive Analysis of Labor Law in Indonesia”, Russian Law Journal 11, No. 2 (2023): 324-329.

Haugaard, Mark. "Power and legitimacy." Knowledge as Social Order. (London: Routledge, 2016), pp. 119-130.

Hazama, Yasushi and Şeref Iba, “Legislative Agenda Setting by a Delegative Democracy: Omnibus Bills in the Turkish Parliamentary System”, Turkish Studies 18, No. 2 (2017): 313-333.

Henry, Shawn, and Aaron F. Brantly. "Countering the cyber threat." The Cyber Defense Review 3, No. 1 (2018): 47-56.

Hermanto, Bagus, and Nyoman Mas Aryani. "Omnibus legislation as a tool of legislative reform by developing countries: Indonesia, Turkey and Serbia practice." The Theory and Practice of Legislation 9.3 (2021): 425-450.

Hesseling, G. “Fockema Andreae's Rechtsgeleerd Handwoordenboek, 4th edition, compiled by N.E. Algra and H.R.W. Gokkel. H.D. Tjeenk Willink, Alphen aan den Rijn, 1977, 713 pp. Dfl. 76,50”. Netherlands International Law Review 25, No. 2 (1978): 294-294.

Hogg, Peter W. “The Law-Making Role of the Supreme Court of Canada: Rapporteur's Synthesis”, Canadian Bar Review 80, No. 1/2 (2001): 171-180.

Hooper, Thomas. “More Than Two Is a Crowd: Mononormativity and Gross Indecency in the Criminal Code, 1981-1982”. Journal of Canadian Studies 48, No. 1 (2014): 53-81.

I.C. Van der Vlie, Handbook Wetgeving (Zwolle: W.E.J Tjeenk Willink, 1987); Van Der Vlies, Inge C. "The role and powers of the council of ministers." In Netherlands Reports to the XIth International Congress of Comparative Law Caracas 1982. (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1982).

Idrees, Rao Qasim, Zaheer Iqbal Cheema, and Jawad Riaz. "Role of harmonization and unification in perspective of China–Pakistan economic corridor physical infrastructure and applicable laws." Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 11, No. 1 (47) (2020): 45-54.

Indonesian Parliamentary Center, “Gejala Disharmoni Antar UU”, Online, December 15 (2020). Available at

Issayeva, Ainur Zhenisovna, et al. "Features of legal regulation of the procedure for the consideration of labor disputes in Kazakhstan." Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 11, No. 1 (47) (2020): 66-73.

Iswahyudi, Fauzi. "Implikasi Kebijakan Omnibus Law Cipta Kerja dalam Perspektif Teori Perundang-Undangan." Mahadi: Indonesia Journal of Law 1, No. 1 (2022): 58-71.

Karpen, Ulrich, and Helen Xanthaki, eds. Legislation in Europe: a comprehensive guide for scholars and practitioners. (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017).

Kasmiati, Andi, et al. "The essence of the principle of Establishing Good Laws and Regulations for Realizing Quality Regional Legal Products”, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) 23, No. 12 (2018): 54-67.

Katrin Nyman-Metcalf, “Legislative Drafting Challenges in Communications Regulation: Convergence, Globalisation and New Media Culture”, International Journal of Legislative Drafting and Law Reform 2, No. 1 (2014): 51-77.

Kemensetneg, “Pemerintah Hormati Putusan MK Terkait UU Cipta Kerja”, Online News, November 29 (2021). Online at

Krutz, Glen S. “Tactical Maneuvering on Omnibus Bills in Congress”. The American Journal of Political Science (AJPS) 45, No. 1 (2001): 210-223.

Massicotte, Louis. “Omnibus Bills in Theory and Practice”, The Canadian Parliamentary Review 36, No. 1 (2013): 13-17.

McCabe, Margaret Sova. “Cooperation or Compromise? Understanding the Farm Bill as Omnibus Legislation”, The Journal of Food Law & Policy 14, No. 1 (2018): 1-11.

Miladinovic-Bogavac, Zivanka. “National Minorities, with Special Opening Opinion in the Republic of Serbia”, Economics 63, No. 3 (2017): 87-95.

Murphy, John. “Anomalies in Tort Law: A Cause for Concern?”, The Modern Law Review 86, No. 4 (2023): 843-1076.

Ni’matul Huda, and Riri Nazriyah. Teori dan Pengujian Peraturan Perundang-Undangan. (Jakarta: Nusamedia, 2019).

O'Brien, Audrey and Marc Forest (eds.), House of Commons Procedure and Practice, (Ottawa, Ontario: House of Commons 2009), pp. 724-725.

Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development-OECD, Better Regulation in Europe, Finland 2010. (Paris: OECD, 2010). Available at

Petsinis, Vasilis. “Regionalization Amidst ‘State-Skrinkage’: The Case of Vojvodina”, The Romanian Review of European Governance Studies 3, No. 5 (2011): 5-28.

Pierce, John F. “Philippine Investment Efforts: The Foreign Investment Act and the Local Governments Code”, Washington International Law Journal 1, No. 1 (1993): 169-197.

PSHK, “Prolegnas Jangka Menengah 2020-2024 dan Prolegnas Prioritas Tahun 2020”, Online. Available at

Putri, Dewi Sartika. "Penerapan Omnibus Law Cipta Kerja di Indonesia Efektif atau Tidak? Studi Tinjauan Berdasarkan Sistem Hukum di Indonesia." Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan 51, No. 2 (2021): 523-540.

Qamar, Nurul, and Farah Syah Rezah. "The dichotomy of approach in the study of legal science: A critical review." SIGn Jurnal Hukum 4, No. 2 (2022): 191-201.

Rachim, Kania Venisa, Christo Sumurung Tua Sagala, and Eddy Mulyono. "Omnibus Law dalam Konstitusi Indonesia." Ajudikasi: Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 7.1 (2023): 17-34.

Republic of Indonesia. (2011). Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 12 of 2011 on Legislation Making (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2011 Number 82, Supplement to the State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5234).

Republic of Indonesia. (2011). Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 15 of 2019 on Amendment to Law Number 12 of 2011 on Legislation Making (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2019 Number 183, Supplement to the State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6398).

Republic of Indonesia. (2022). Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 13 of 2022 on the Second Amendment to Law Number 12 of 2011 on Legislation Making (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2022 Number 143, Supplement to the State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6801).

Saputra, Noverdi Puja. “Dampak Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 91/PUU-XVIII/2020 Terkait Pengujian UU Cipta Kerja”, Isu Sepekan Bidang Hukum, December (2021).

Seta, Salahudin Tunjung. "Hak Masyarakat dalam Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan." Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia 17, No. 2 (2020): 154-166.

Siems, M. “Malicious Legal Transplants”, Legal Studies 38, No. 1 (2018): 103-119.

Sobaci, Mehmet Zahid, ed. E-Parliament and ICT-Based Legislation: Concept, Experiences and Lessons: Concept, Experiences and Lessons. (Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2011).

Somer, Murat. "Turkey: The slippery slope from reformist to revolutionary polarization and democratic breakdown." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 681.1 (2019): 42-61.

Stern, Rebecca Thorburn. "When the ends justify the means? Quality of law-making in times of urgency." The Theory and Practice of Legislation 7, No. 2 (2019): 85-100.

Sucipto, Purnomo. “Pemanfaatan Teknologi dalam Dunia Perundang-Undangan”, Online, November 21 (2021). Retrieved from at

Supriyanto, Akhmad Haris. "Politik Hukum Kemudahan Berusaha dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2020 tentang Cipta Kerja (The Legal Politics of Ease of Doing Business Concepts in Law Number 11 of 2020 on Job Creation)." Negara Hukum: Membangun Hukum untuk Keadilan dan Kesejahteraan 13, No. 1 (2022): 83-101.

SY Chandra, Helmi, and Shelvin Putri Irawan. "Perluasan Makna Partisipasi Masyarakat dalam Pembentukan Undang-Undang Pasca Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi." Jurnal Konstitusi 19, No. 4 (2022): 766-793.

Tarmizi, Tarmizi. "Legal simplification of land regulation associated with increased investment as the basis for conceptualization of the omnibus law." Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics (JARLE) 11, No. 47 (2020): 203-207.

United Nations, Global Centre for Information and Communication Technologies in Parliament, and Inter-parliamentary Union. World e-Parliament Report 2012. (New York City: UN, 2012).

Unkovski-Korica, Vladimir. “World War II and The National Question: The Origins of The Autonomous Status of Vojvodina in Yugoslavia”, Europe-Asia Studies 68, No. 10 (2016): 1731-1732.

Van Lochem, Peter. "Legislation against the rule of law–an introduction." The Theory and Practice of Legislation 5, No. 2 (2017): 95-100.

Vuković, Danilo, and Marija Babović. "Social interests, policy networks, and legislative outcomes: The role of policy networks in shaping welfare and employment policies in Serbia." East European Politics and Societies 28, No. 1 (2014): 5-24.

Waldron, Jeremy. “Representative Lawmaking”, Boston University Law Review 89, No. 1 (2009): 335-355.

Watson, Alan. "From Legal Transplants to Legal Formants." The American Journal of Comparative Law 43, No. 3 (1995): 469-476.

Westerman, P. C. The Rule of Law as Export Product, The Theory and Practice of Legislation 5, No. 2 (2017): 171-177.

Wright, Evan. “Omnibus Legislation and Separation of Powers: Too Big to Fail?”, Journal of Legislation 49, No. 1 (2023): 110-135.

Yusa, I. Gede, Bagus Hermanto, and Nyoman Mas Aryani, “No-Spouse Employment and the Problem of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia”, Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 11, No. 47 (2020): 214-226.

Zainuddin, Zainuddin. "The Problems of Conception of Law Amendment with Government Regulations of Omnibus Bill on Job Creation Studied from the Theory of Legislation Perspective." Randwick International of Social Science Journal 1, No. 3 (2020): 474-485.

Most read articles by the same author(s)