The Influence of Learning Models and Learning Reliance on Students’ Scientific Literacy

R. Ratini, H. Muchtar, M. A. Suparman, A. H. Tamuri, E. Susanto


This research aimed to identify the influence of two learning models and learning reliance on students’ scientific literacy. The method used was the treatment by 2 x 2 level. The participants were 36 students from the Department of Biology Education who were grouped into two categories based on the reliance questionnaire score, i.e., categories of high and low. The data were collected through scientific literacy tests, data analysis using two-path ANOVA formula followed by the Tukey test. The results showed that there was an influence on the interactions between the learning models and learning reliance on students’ scientific literacy seen from the ANOVA test results which obtained F = 29.88, =0.05. The Tukey test analysis identified; (1) Scientific literacy of college students who used the Science, Technology, Society (STS) model was higher than those who adopted the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Model with Q = 4,74 at =0.05; (2) The scientific literacy of students having high learning reliance using the STS learning model was better than those applying the PBL with Q = 11,78 at =0.05; (3) The scientific literacy of students having low learning reliance using the STS learning model was lower than those using the PBL with Q=5.07 at =0.05. It concluded that the STS learning model could improve the students’ scientific literacy. In other words, the STS learning was more useful for the high reliance students than those with low reliance.


learning reliance, STS, scientific literacy

Full Text:



Abidin, Y. (2014). Desain Sistem Pembelajaran dalam konteks Kurikulum 2013. Bandung: Refika Aditama.

Akcay, H., & Yager, R. E. (2010). The Impact of a Science/Technology/Society Teaching Approach on Student Learning in Five Domains. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 19(6), 602-611.

Ardianto, D., & Rubini, B. (2016). Comparison of Student’s Scientific Literacy in Integrated Science Learning Through Model of Guided Discovery and Problem Based Learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(1), 31–37.

Bay, J. L., Vickers, M. H., Mora, H. A., Sloboda, D. M., & Morton, S. M. (2017). Adolescents as Agents of Healthful Change through Scientific Literacy Development: A School-University Partnership Program in New Zealand. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(1), 15-35.

Bencze, J. L. (2009). “Polite Directiveness†in Science Inquiry: A Contradiction in Terms? Cultural Studies of Science Education, 4(4), 855-864.

Bonney, R., Cooper, C. B., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg, K. V., & Shirk, J. (2009). Citizen Science: a Developing Tool for Expanding Science Knowledge and Scientific Literacy. BioScience, 59(11), 977-984.

Botzakis, S., Burns, L. D., & Hall, L. A. (2014). Literacy Reform and Common Core State Standards: Recycling the Autonomous Model. Language Arts, 91(4), 223-235.

Cronin, K. (2010). The “Citizen Scientistâ€: Reflections on the Public Role of Scientists in Response to Emerging Biotechnologies in New Zealand. East Asian Science, Technology, and Society, 4(4), 503–519.

Donald, K. J., & Kovac, J. (2012). The Scientist’s Education and a Civic Conscience. Science and Engineering Ethics, 19(3), 1229-1240.

dos Santos, W. L. P. (2014). Debate on Global Warming as a Socio-Scientific Issue: Science Teaching towards Political Literacy. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 9(3), 663-674.

Farida, I., Hadiansyah, H., Mahmud, M., & Munandar, A. (2017). Project-Based Learning Design for Internalization of Environmental Literacy with Islamic Values. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 277–284.

France, A. (2011). Speaking about Scientific Literacy. In Scientific Literacy Under the Microscope (pp. 101-109). SensePublishers.

Giordano, S. (2017). Feminists Increasing Public Understandings of Science: A Feminist Approach to Developing Critical Scientific Literacy Skills. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 38(1), 100-123.

Holbrook, J., & Rannikmae, M. (2009). The Meaning of Scientific Literacy. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 4(3), 275-288.

Hosnan, M. (2014). Pendekatan Saintifik dan Kontekstual dalam Pembelajaran Abad 21: Kunci Sukses Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Ghalia Indonesia.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An Educational Psychology Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative Learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365-379.

Klein, J. T., Grossenbacher-Mansuy, W., Häberli, R., Bill, A., Scholz, R. W., & Welti, M. (Eds.). (2001). Transdisciplinarity: Joint Problem Solving Among Science, Technology, and Society: An Effective Way for Managing Complexity. Springer Science & Business Media.

Koenig, K., Schen, M., & Bao, L. (2012). Explicitly Targeting Pre-Service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course. Science Educator, 21(2), 1–9.

Lenz, L., & Willcox, M. K. (2012). Issue-Oriented Science: Using Socioscientific Issues to Engage Biology Students. The American Biology Teacher, 74(8), 551–556.

Leonard, D. C. (2002). Learning Theories, A to Z. London: Greenwood Press.

Lewinsohn, T. M., Attayde, J. L., Fonseca, C. R., Ganade, G., Jorge, L. R., Kollmann, J., ... & da Rocha, P. L. (2015). Ecological Literacy and Beyond: Problem-Based Learning for Future Professionals. Ambio, 44(2), 154-162.

McCaughan, K. L. (2008). Problem-Based Learning Tutors’ Beliefs and Challenges (Doctoral Dissertation, Faculty of Education-Simon Fraser University).

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2009, September 8). Education at a Glance 2009 : OECD indicators. OECD. Retrieved from

Owen, R., Macnaghten, P., & Stilgoe, J. (2012). Responsible Research And Innovation: From Science in Society to Science for Society, with Society. Science And Public Policy, 39(6), 751-760.

Putra, S. R. (2013). Desain Belajar Mengajar Kreatif Berbasis Sains. Yogyakarta: DIVA.

Richey, R. C., Klein, J. D., & Tracey, M. W. (2010). The Instructional Design Knowledge Base: Theory, Research, and Practice. Routledge.

Rintayati, P., & Putro, S. P. (2014). Meningkatkan Aktivitas Belajar (Active Learning) Siswa Berkarakter Cerdas dengan Pendekatan Sains Teknologi (STS). Didaktika Dwija Indria, 1(2), 1-24.

Rusman. (2011). Model-Model Pembelajaran: Mengembangkan Profesionalisme Guru. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers/PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

Sadler, T. D., & Zeidler, D. L. (2009). Scientific Literacy, PISA, and Socioscientific Discourse: Assessment for Progressive Aims of Science Education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 46(8), 909-921.

Suparman, M. A. (2012). Desain Instruksional Modern: Panduan Para Pengajat dan Inovator Pendidikan. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Suwono, H., Pratiwi, H. E., Susanto, H., & Susilo, H. (2017). Enhancement of Students’ Biological Literacy and Critical Thinking of Biology through Socio-Biological Case-Based Learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 213–220.

Tobin, K. (2015). Handbook Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains. Bandung: Nusa Media.

Toharudin, U., Hendrawati, S., & Rustaman, A. (2011). Membangun Literasi Sains Peserta Didik. Bandung: Humaniora.

Toyokawa, W., Saito, Y., & Kameda, T. (2017). Individual Differences in Learning Behaviours in Humans: Asocial Exploration Tendency Does Not Predict Reliance on Social Learning. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(3), 325–333.

Trauth-Nare, A. (2015). Re-Envisioning Scientific Literacy as Relational, Participatory Thinking and Doing. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 11(2), 327-334.

Wahyuni, E. T., & Sunarno, W. (2012). Pembelajaran Biologi dengan Pendekatan Contextual Teaching and Learning melalui Metode Observasi Laboratorium dan Lingkungan ditinjau dari Keingintahuan dan Kemandirian Belajar Siswa. Jurnal Inkuiri, 1(1), 1-9.

Wang, Y., Peng, H., Huang, R., Hou, Y., & Wang, J. (2008). Characteristics of Distance Learners: Research on Relationships of Learning Motivation, Learning Strategy, Selfâ€Efficacy, Attribution and Learning Results. Open Learning, 23(1), 17-28.

Wisudawati, A. W., & Sulistyowati, E. (2014). Metodologi Pembelajaran IPA. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Woolfolk, A. (2009). Educational Psychology: Active Learning Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Zhukova, O. (2017). Novice Teachers’ Beliefs about Problem-Based Learning Approach, and Teaching Practices. In CBU International Conference Proceedings... (Vol. 5, p. 901). Central Bohemia University.


  • There are currently no refbacks.