Econometric Modelling on Happiness in Learning Mathematics: The Case of Senior High Students


Econometric models
influencing factors
learning happines
senior high school

How to Cite

Casinillo, L., & Casinillo, E. (2020). Econometric Modelling on Happiness in Learning Mathematics: The Case of Senior High Students. Indonesian Journal of Curriculum and Educational Technology Studies, 8(1), 22-31.


This study developed econometric models on the students’ happiness in learning mathematics to identify its influencing factors. A complete enumeration of 115 grade 11 students in the Visayas State University were employed as participants. Results showed that about 61% of the students considered themselves as moderately happy in learning. Their expected happiness is approximately the same with their actual happiness, which is one of the significant determinants in the models. STEM students among other strands in senior high school are more likely happy learners. Household income, allowance, and mental health condition show a small influence on their happiness in learning.  Students who spend more time in the library, and those living in rural places tend to be happy in learning. Furthermore, physical health condition shows an inverse effect on students’ well-being in learning mathematics, while social relationships and the distance from home to school do not contribute to their happiness.


Penelitian ini mengembangkan model ekonometrik pada kebahagiaan siswa dalam pembelajaran matematika untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang memengaruhinya. Data diambil dari 115 mahasiswa kelas 11 di Universitas Negeri Visayas. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 61% mahasiswa menilai diri mereka relatif bahagia. Tingkat kebahagiaan yang mereka harapkan relatif sama dengan yang mereka tunjukkan secara aktual dan ini merupakan salah satu model yang signifikan buktinya. Siswa yang mengikuti program STEM dan sejenisnya pada jenjang sekolah menengah atas (SMA) tampak lebih bahagia. Pendapatan di rumah, tunjangan, dan kesehatan mental tampak menunjukkan pengaruh yang tidak seberapa pada kebahagiaan belajar. Sementara itu siswa yang menghabiskan banyak waktu di perpustakaan dan tinggal di perdesaan cenderung bahagia dalam belajar. Lebih lanjut, kondisi kesehatan fisik tampak berbanding terbalik dengan kesejahteraan siswa dalam belajar matematika, sementara itu relasi sosial dan jarak rumah ke sekolah tidak berkontribusi pada kebahagiaan siswa.


Abecia, D. R., Samong, M., Abella, L., Baldomero, F. Tamayo, A. & Gabronino, R. (2014). Measuring happiness of university students. American Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 43-48.

Alabekee, E. C., Samuel, A., & Osaat, S. D. (2015). Effect of cooperative learning strategy on students learning ex-perience and achievements in mathematics. International Journal of Education Learning and Development, 3(4), 67-75.

Bailey, R. (2009). Well-being, happiness and education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(6), 795-802. doi:10.1080/01425690903236613

Boholano, H. (2017). Smart social networking: 21st century teaching and learning skills. Research in Pedagogy, 7(1), 21‐29.

Brown, P. L., Concannon, J. P., Marx, D., Donaldson, C. W., & Black, A. (2016). An examination of middle school students' STEM self-efficacy with relation to interest and perceptions of STEM. Journal of STEM Education: Inno-vations and Research, 17(3), 27.

Can, I., Koydemir, S., Durhan, S., Ogan, S., Gozukara, C., & Cokluk, G. (2017). Changing high school students’ atti-tudes towards mathematics in a summer camp: Happiness matters. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17(1), 1625–1648.

Casinillo, L. F. (2019). Factors affecting the failure rate in mathematics: the case of Visayas State University (VSU). Review of Socio-Economic Research and Development Studies, 3(1), 1-18.

Casinillo, L. F. & Aure, M. R. K. L. (2018). Econometric evidence on academic performance in basic calculus of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) senior high students. Journal of Educational and Human Resource Development, 6, 238-249.

Casinillo, L. F., Camulte, M. C. G., Raagas, D. L. and Riña, T. S. (2020). Cultural factors in learning mathematics: the case on achievement level among Badjao students. International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching, 4(1), 71-81.

Casinillo, L. F. & Guarte, J. M. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of teaching strategies: The case of a national vocational school in Hilongos, Leyte. Review of Socio-Economic Research and Development Studies, 2(1), 64-79.

Chaiprasit, K. & Santidhirakul, O. (2011) Happiness at work of employees in small and medium-sized enterprises, Thailand. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 189 – 200.

Dullas, A. R., & Acoba, E.F. (2013). Concept of happiness among Filipino farmers: A qualitative and quantitative view. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.

Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2002). What can economists learn from happiness research? Journal of Economic litera-ture, 40(2), 402-435.

Frey, B. & Stutzer, A. (2010). Happiness: A new approach in economics, CESifo DICE Report, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts, Switzerland.

Graham, C. (2004). The economics of happiness: Insights on globalization from a novel approach. World Econom-ics, 6(3), 41-55.

Guazzelli, G. P. and Zilli, J. B. (2016). Economics of happiness: A study on happiness indicators in university pro-fessors. ECOFORUM, 5(1), 171-181.

Greene, W. H. (2008). Econometric Analysis. 6th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Helliwell, J. F., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2012). World happiness report. New York: Earth Institute.

Hoyles, C., Noss, R., Kent, P., & Bakker, A. (2010). Improving mathematics at work: The need for techno-mathematical literacies. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

King, K. A., Vidourek, R. A., Merianos, A. L. & Singh, M. (2014). A study of stress, social support, and perceived happiness among college students. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 2(2), 132-144.

Kitchen, J. A., Sonnert, G., & Sadler, P. M. (2018). The impact of college-and university-run high school summer programs on students’ end of high school STEM career aspirations. Science Education, 102(3), 529–547.

Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2010). Great expectations? The subjective well-being of rural-urban migrants in China. World Development, 38(1), 113–124.

Lyubomirsky, S. & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(1), 137-155.

Marques, S., Lopez, S., & Pais-Ribeiro, K. (2011). Building hope for the future: A program to foster strengths in middle-school students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(1), 139–152.

Markussen, T., Fibæk, M., Tarp, F. and Tuan, N. D. A. (2018). The Happy Farmer: Self-Employment and Subjec-tiveWell-Being in Rural Vietnam. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(1), 1613–1636.

Monk-Turner, E., & Turner, C. G. (2012). Subjective well-being in a southwestern province in China. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(2), 357-369.

Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and education. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Norris, E. (2012). Solving the maths problem: International perspectives on mathematics education. London, UK: The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.

Olafsen, A. H., Niemiec, C. P., Halvari, H., Deci, E. L. and Williams, G. C. (2017). On the dark side of work: a longi-tudinal analysis using self-determination theory. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 275–285.

Park, J. J. (2014). Clubs and the Campus Racial Climate: Student Organizations and Interracial Friendship in Col-lege. Journal of College Student Development, 55(7), 641-660.

Pilten, G. (2016). The evaluation of effectiveness of reciprocal teaching strategies on comprehension of expository texts. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(10), 232-247.

Popovic, G., & Lederman, J. S. (2015). Implications of informal education experiences for mathematics teachers’ ability to make Connections beyond the formal classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 115(3), 129–140

Proto, E. (2016). Are happy workers more productive? IZA World of Labor, 315(1). 1-8.

Quinn, P. D., & Duckworth, A. L. (2007). Happiness and academic achievement: Evidence for reciprocal causality. In Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society.

Sadeghi, J. M., Shirouyehzad, L. and Samadi, S. (2012). Estimating the Impact of Education on Income with Econ-ometric Approach: A Case Study in Universities. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2(6), 2222-6990.

Schiffrin, H. H., & Nelson, S. K. (2010). Stressed and happy? Investigating the relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33-39.

Singh, A. (2014). Conducive Classroom Environment in Schools. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(1), 387-392.

Stock, J. H. & Watson, M. W. (2007). Introduction to Econometrics. 2nd edition. Pearson Addison Wesley. Boston. Štreimikienė & Grundey. (2009). Life Satisfaction and Happiness-The Factors in Work Performance. Guest Editori-al, Economic & Sociology, 2(1), 9-26.

Tachie, S. A., & Chireshe, R. (2013). High failure rate in mathematics examinations in rural senior secondary schools in Mthatha district, Eastern Cape: Learners’ attributions. Studies of Tribes and Tribals, 11(1), 67-73. Re-trieved from

Tenedero, H. S. (2009). Super teacher: Excellent in teaching. Center for learning and teaching styles. Phils., Inc., Philippines.

Warmbrod, J. R. (2014). Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-type Scales. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(5), 30-47.