American Psychological Association (APA) Style

Citing opinions or research finding from other articles has several purposes, including (1) helping to strengthen the explanation of certain concepts in the manuscript, (2) strengthening the author arguments, (3) showing the similarity or differences toward such opinions or research findings, (4) revealing opinions and research findings that are still on a limited scale or in different contexts, (5) comparing the research findings with other studies’, and (6) using certain theoretical perspectives to assist analysis.

There are two types of citation, indirect and direct citation. Indirect citation is a way of quoting by writing a substantial part of the quoted opinions/findings in a paragraph using the authors’ own words without changing/reducing the message. On the other hand, direct quotation lets the authors make no change on the quoted source, so, they just rewrite the sentences and attach the author name/s, publication year, and page/s.

IJCETS editorial team refers to the American Psychological Association (APA) Style in writing indirect quotations, direct quotations, and references. Some of the basic rules in APA Style are as follows.

  1. It is necessary to write the last name of the author/s, the publication year, and the page/s quoted. Example: …… (Subkhan, 2016, pp. 20-23). The page begins with the letter "p" which stands for "page", while "pp" is used when citing several pages at once in sequence.
  2. If the citation is a paraphrase of an essay, it is sufficient to only write the surname and year. Example:…(Tilaar, 2017).
  3. No need to include the academic title of the referred author/s.
  4. If there is no author found, then the text title is written as reference (see example).
  5. Footnote is not recommended as it has the potential to waste the number of pages. However, you can use footnotes if you have to due to the important things that require a separate explanation.

In order to make it easier for the author to manage their works automatically, especially on citing and writing bibliography, IJCETS requires the authors to use such reference manager such as Mendeley. Mendeley could be easily downloaded, installed and used properly. The author should add the references to the application automatically or manually. Mendeley also provide another writing style besides APA Style, for instance, Chicago Manual, IEEE, and Harvard.

As have been stated earlier, IJCETS adopts the APA Style as the main reference. If the authors use Mendeley, they have to pay attention to the completeness of the data from article, book, book chapter, and others inputted in the system. This is important because not all information can be read by Mendeley automatically. Sometimes Mendeley miss some important information, such as the author name, title written in all-capital, undetected publication year, etc. Hence, authors need to look at the documents or files to be added to Mendeley manually and then correct it properly to avoid citation errors.

Authors can match the Mendeley’s writing style results with the official guideline issued by the associated institution. For instance, the guideline to the APA Style is available on its website to be purchased. If authors do not want to buy the full version, the free one can be accessed in the OWL Purdue website. Nevertheless, not all documents are standardized in the APA Style, for example, legal products. US and Indonesia have a different style of writing laws or regulations issued by the respective government. For that reason, the writing style of the legal product follows the context of each country’s original version (see example).

Indirect Citation

In short, using indirect citation means you should pharaprase the essence of the reference you quoted. Therefore, it is not just copying and pasting, but reading, understanding, and rewriting—pharaprase—in different words. Indirect citation as well as direct citation can be derived from books, scientific articles, website pages, documents downloaded from the website, as well as personal communications (email, interviews). Provided are an example of indirect citations referring to the APA Style.

Table 1 The Example of Indirect Citations based on the APA Style



Single author

Soedijarto (2013, p. 101) suggested that the National Examination be postponed and the government should focus more on achieving the national education standard.

1-5 authors

Paulo Freire's thought on education is very critical (Apple, Gandin, & Hypolito, 2006).

This is in line with Apple, Gandin, dan Hypolito (2006) who confirmed that Paulo Freire’s thought on education is indeed very critical.

More than 5 authors, use et al.

Harris et al. (1998) argued that educational policy is always related to politics.

Educational policy is admittedly associated with politics (Harris et al., 1998).

Quoting opinions that have been cited in a particular source

John Dewey (in Subkhan, 2016, p. 35) stated that education is not merely a preparation for future life, but the life itself.

Hatta explained that freedom is a golden bridge to people’s bliss (in Tilaar, 2016, p. 105).

For news, articles, or reports originating from printed or online mass media while the author is not known, write the 2-4 first words from the title

So far, Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) has initiated several collaborations with foreign universities, one of which is…. (Unnes Jalin Kerjasama, 2014)

In rare cases, use "Anonymous"

This case proves that the appointment of officials at the Education Office is always influenced by political interests and considerations (Anonymous, 2015).

For an organization as the author, include the complete name of the organization.



Referring to Indonesian Curriculum Developer Association (2014), the government should pay attention to the needs of curriculum developers and evaluators at the educational unit level.

If the organization has been familiar

Teachers in the Continuous Professional Development/Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan (PKB) program are required to conduct annual self-evaluation (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2011)

Legal products (laws, regulations), write the institutions that issue them, for example, Local Government, Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia, and others.

Laws or other legal products

The policy regarding freedom of learning for higher education is stated in the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 3 of 2020 on National Higher Education Standards (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2020).

One of the legal products that form the basis of the neo-liberalization of Indonesian education is Law No. 9 of 2009 on Education Legal Entities (Republik Indonesia, 2009).

Two authors from two different sources in one sentence

Cases of school violence cannot be blamed on teachers alone. Family, society, and mass media also have a big role in triggering, or otherwise, muffling the potential of school violence (Seto, 2010; Sirait, 2008).

If the authors have the same surname in a sentence

The student movement basically cannot stand alone. The cases of 1966 and 1998 show the involvement of several political interests from the military and society’s support for students (Y. Haryono, 2008; A. Haryono, 2010).

One author with different works, add a, b, c, etc. after the publication year

Critical education should be used as a theoretical and methodological reference in the development and implementation of Pancasila education (Subkhan, 2016a).

If quoted all in one sentence

The social change greatly affects the government’s direction of policymaking in the educational field (Subkhan, 2016a; Subkhan, 2016b).

The direction of our formal education development is now too much driven by the interests of economic growth as stated by Subkhan (2016a, 2016b).

Quoting from personal communication through email, interview, and the like



Ahmad said that the school where he teaches needs more teachers (personal communication, 3 November 2017).

The inauguration of principals sometimes pays more attention to seniority and personal closeness instead of academic qualifications and individual competence (A.J. Hutasoit, personal communication, 14 January 2018).

P.S.: Personal communication is not included in the references

If the time/year of publication cannot be found, write the title of the article followed by the n.d. (no date)

The management of museums as a fascinating learning medium for the community constrains many problems (Museum di Indonesia, n.d.).

For websites without page, write the author, year, and paragraph order. The word paragraph is abbreviated into “para”

Cultural phenomena are suitably understood using the postmodern perspective (Piliang, 2018, para. 3).

If it is difficult to find the paragraph order, write the title/subtitle followed by paragraph order

As stated by Smith (1997), the development of technology highly influences the educational world, even at the technical level. For example, cognitivism whose explanation is analogized with the process of storing and managing data in a computer (Cognitivism learning paradigm, para. 5).

Citing from the second source

Deleuze & Guattari’s concept of the assemblage (as cited in Nail, 2017) ….


Direct Citation

Next, direct citation is quoting without changing the substance, words, or sentence structure. In other words, the authors all need to do is copying the sentence from the source referred into separate paragraph. The writing is indented in line with the Alenia and does not need to begin and end with quotation marks ("). In the template provided by IJCETS, the direct citation is written a smaller font (9 pts) than the normal paragraph font size (10 pts). The following Table 2 is the example.

Table 2 The example of direct citations based on the APA Style

Educational practices run with a bank-like system is not productive at all, and at the same time, inhumane. Critical education theorist and activist, Paulo Freire (2013, p. 53) stated as follows.

In a banking education, knowledge is a god gift granted by those considering themselves knowledgeable to people whom they think do not own any knowledge. To judge the absolute foolishness of others is a hallmark of the oppression ideology which denies education and knowledge as a process of seeking.

The teacher workload is relatively heavy. The effort to fulfill the responsibility of being an elementary school teacher is already quite a hassle, especially if you add to the demands to always develop self-competence as mandated by statutory provisions. One of the teachers explained the following.

Well, yes, it’s quite hard as there is no administrative staff here so that the teachers have to cover the administrative duties as well. That is in addition to compiling assignments to students and evaluating, which are done almost every day. At home, as a wife, many house chores wait to be done. When asked about self-development, I think that it is out-of-reach, mainly when no one accompanies us in school (Informant 3).

The national curriculum, howsoever, must be changed. Some scholars have argued that since a long time ago, every time there are developments in science, technology, industry, economics, and politics, the curriculum has also changed. Adiartanto (2013) says:

Adaptations to recent development is one of the reasons frequently discussed when curriculum change occurs. The 1947 curriculum change which paid attention to the formation of a human character who was sovereign and equal to other nations, was refined into the 1952 curriculum with the name of Unraveled Learning Plan focusing more on the content of lessons related to the needs of everyday life. This is an example of curriculum refinement due to adjustments to developments. (p.95)

Direct citation in Table 2 shows three examples of it. The first example was taken from a book/reference, while the second was derived from an interview with the teacher as the informant. The third example is a citation from a book with page information placed at the end of the quotation. In general, it is not much different from the indirect citation in terms of writing the author name, year, and page — as discussed earlier. Usually, direct citation intends to strengthen the readers about what the author quoted directly from the primary source. Important statements by experts, conclusions from the research results, and part of a policy or law are relatively often excerpted using direct citation.

Tables and Figures

According to APA style figures and tables function to illustrate the data and information more clearly to the audience in a visual form. Sometimes much information in such manuscript could get biased because maybe it has too many paragraphs in which prevent the readers/audience to perceive the essence of the manuscript clearly. Therefore, figures and tables are useful to help the readers to understand the message of the manuscript clearly. Regarding to its function to illustrate the data and information more clearly as possible, so if some information already in the table or figure the author should not explain the same information in text.

Each table or picture has a caption to explain the substance of the table or figure and its sources. For table, the caption is written above the table, for figure the caption is written below the figure. Moreover, APA style considers table as an integrate part of the paragraph, therefore the author should remove the horizontal line in the table, except the header of the table. Table’s font size is smaller than the body paragraph, if the body paragraph’s font size is 10 pt, the font size in the table could be 9 or 8 pt. Below are the examples of the table and figure.

Figure 1 The Example of Table Style and Its Description

Figure 2 The Example of an Appropriate Image Caption