The conclusion section is the answer to the research questions that have been proposed and deliberated about in the discussion. The conclusion is written in paragraphs and not described numerically. The author can put such suggestions for the further discussion and research as well as giving some policy recommendations and etc. The conclusion should be written briefly, concisely, and straightforwardly.

Table 18 The Example of Conclusion

Overall, this study revealed that the majority of students in Canadian high schools held positive attitudes about using peerScholar, an online peer-assessment tool. This was true even though the students completed various types of assignments with different rubrics and requirements (which was a limitation of this study). Nevertheless, the current findings are the first to highlight that using peerScholar within the K-12 school system was associated with positive student attitudes. This was also the first study in which peerScholar was used to examine attitudes toward formative assessment assignments.


In sum, it is important to continually survey student attitudes to ensure that students are engaged with, and hopefully learning from, online peer-assessment processes. Future studies of peerScholar should focus on some of the following empirical questions. How do peer-assessment assignments differ from traditional, non-peer-assessment based assignments with respect to student learning? What type of feedback is most helpful for the development of critical thought in high-school students? How long should an assignment last to be effective and enjoyable? And does a peer-assessment assignment lead to higher student engagement and more positive attitudes towards learning compared to a traditional assignment? Until then, in light of our findings, we encourage educators to implement online peer-assessment in their teaching and learning practices so that our middle- and high-school students can have a positive, enjoyable peer-enhanced educational experience.

Table 18 is an example of the conclusion part taken from an article by Cillimore, Pare, dan Joordens (2015) entitled “SWDYT: So What Do You Think? Canadian students’ attitudes about peerScholar, an online peer-assessment tool, Learning Environment Research, 18, 42-43.


After the conclusion section the author could add the acknowledgement information in order to give some important statement related to the research and manuscript. For example, explain about the previous version of the manuscript that has been presented at a certain academic event (seminar, conference, symposium), say thanks to the institution who gave such funding for the research, or also just say thank-you for some peoples who helped the research or the writing process of manuscript. It is not allowed to write a thank you to the thesis or dissertation supervisor (for manuscripts written based on thesis or dissertation), also, those whose name is included as the authors.

Table 19 The Example of Acknowledgments




Thanks to the Center for Policy Research, Ministry of Education and Culture, Research and Development Agency, and the Ministry of Education and Culture for fully supporting the implementation of this research.


We thank Ali Formen for his comments and discussion in the writing of the initial draft of this article.

Author’s note

An earlier version of the article was presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association in 2008


The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The research reported in this article was made possible, in part, by a grant from the National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship (Advanced Research Studies No. 200100304) to the Center for Social Organization of Schools and Department of Sociology at the Johns Hopkins University. Additional support came from grants from the American Sociological Association Fund for the Advancement of the Discipline, the Poverty & Race Research Action Council, and Syracuse University. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any grant.


References show the quality of a manuscript seen from the referred articles' publication, whether they are published in reputable journals or not. Moreover, the relevancy of books and other sources is also taken into account. Several requirements for reference writing in IJCETS are as follows.

  • Make sure that each source included in the reference list has been cited in the body of the article and vice versa. Do not add any source which cannot be found in the article, hence, it is suggested that authors use the reference manager, mainly Mendeley.

  • The number of references follows the needs to strengthen the background and analysis/discussion by pointing out to reliable sources.

  • Eighty percent of the references should come from the primary sources of scientific journals, the rest (20%) are taken from textbooks and others.

  • The writing style generally adopts the APA Style.

  • References are arranged alphabetically (A-Z) with the following layout as shown in Table 20 and the IJCETS template.

The followings are some examples of reference writing based on the type of source being referred to. Some of which are taken from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (

Table 20 The Example of References Writing




Government Regulations

A Government Regulation

Pemerintah Republik Indonesia (2012) Undang-undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2012 tentang Pendidikan Tinggi. Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia.

A Ministerial Decree

Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi. (2017). Peraturan Menteri Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi Nomor 5 Tahun 2017 tentang Standar Pendidikan Guru. Kemristek Dikti.

  Periodic Publication

An academic article published based on volume

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

An academic article published based on volume and number

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

An academic article with DOI

Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning. Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement, 6(1), 11–16.

An academic article taken from the internet and has no DOI, then include the URL

Denny, H., Nordlof, J., & Salem, L. (2018). "Tell me exactly what it was that I was doing that was so bad": Understanding the needs and expectations of working-class students in writing centers. Writing Center Journal, 37(1), 67–98.

An article in the magazine

Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never. Time, 135(17), 20–21.

An article in a daily newspaper

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, 1A, 2A.

A letter to the editor

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

A book review published in a scientific journal

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.


A collection of writings

Leitch, M. G., & Rushton, C. J. (Eds.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D. S. Brewer.

An edited book with a description of the chapter author

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education. In V. Hill-Jackson & C. W. Lewis (Eds.), Transforming Teacher Education: What Went Wrong with Teacher Training, and How We Can Fix It (pp. 233–247). Stylus.

A book with a single author

Apple, M. W. (2004). Ideology and Curriculum (3rd ed.). RoutledgeFalmer.

A book with two to three authors

Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005). The Systematic Design of Instruction (6th ed.). Pearson.

A book with a single author that is a result of other's edit

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. KI. V. Kukil, Ed.). Anchor.

A translated book

Ricklefs, M. C. (2005). Sejarah Indonesia Modern: 1200-2004 (S. Wahono, B. Bilfagih, H. Huda, M. Helmi, J. Sutrisno, & H. Manadi (Trans.)). Serambi.

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

A second (and so on) edition book

Belcher, W. (2019). Writing your journal article in twelve weeks: A guide to academic publishing success (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.

A book in volumes

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). Scribner's.

  Other print outs

Encyclopedia, dictionary, thesaurus

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Encyclopedia Britannica. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

An entry in Encyclopedia, dictionary, thesaurus

Tatum, S. R. (2009). Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. In T. L. Stanley, Encyclopedia of hip hop literature (pp. 250-252). Greenwood. KerÓ“nen, L. (2014). Biopreparedness and biosecurity. In T. L. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health communication (Vol. 1, pp. 113-116). SAGE Reference.

An abstract dissertation

Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

An abstract of a scientific article (accessed online)

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58. Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

Published dissertation (if the publication is not in the database, then include the URL)

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name. Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Unpublished dissertation

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.  Samson, J. M. (2016). Human trafficking and globalization [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Manuscript prepared for publication

Glass, A. (2019). How avocados changed America [Manuscript in preparation]. Department of Sociology, Michigan State University.

Proceeding. Include URL if available

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Erlbaum. Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication. ACM Digital Library.

A report from an organization

United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019

A report written by a member of an organization

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of report. Organization Name. URL. Palanker, D., Volk, J., Lucia, K., & Thomas, K. (2018). Mental health parity at risk: Deregulating the individual market and the impact on mental health coverage. National Alliance on Mental Illness.

  Digital Sources

One author with the article title and media name

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium.

If written collectively or under an organization and published on the same website, remove the description of the website

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims

If the authors are not included and the content is editable, for example, the Wiki

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from


Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia.

If the publication date is not available

Author or Group name. (n.d.). Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions

An article published in a mass media 

Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post

If the article is published not by the mass media

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. BBC.

News from online mass media without a clear author's name

Unnes Jalin Kerja Sama dengan MSU. (2014, 2 April). Suara Merdeka.

An electronic book that can be accessed freely, write "Downloaded from". If paid, write "Available on"

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo  Indian tales. Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest.  Available from inkey=1-9780931686108-0

A digital formatted book, for example, Kindle products

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. URL Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

A book review in the interview

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site: McKinley, A. (2018). [Review of the book Criminal investigative failures, by D. K. Rossmo]. Salus Journal, 6(1), 82-84.

Encyclopedia and online dictionary

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Beck, J., & Foley, D. (2015). Music composition. In The Canadian encyclopedia. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Plagiarism. In dictionary. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from

Bibliography or online annotation

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography.

Data files obtained online

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file].

Online graphic illustration

HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic]. Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from,-86.9233886,17z

The results of audio interview uploaded in the internet (interviewee is written as writer)

Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum.

Slide and online lecturE

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

A presentation without online source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution [Description of contribution]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location. Matson, E. (2018, Nov. 5). Drones and autonomous vehicles: The latest new technology to come with potential threat [Conference session]. Dawn or Doom 2018 Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Presentation with online source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution [Description of contribution]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location. URL Bailey, C. (2019, April 5). How to get your brain to focus [Address]. TEDxManchester, Manchester, U.K.

An individual presentation in symposium or big panel

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson & F. F. Chairperson (Chairs), Title of larger symposium/panel [Description of symposium/panel] Title of symposium/conference, Location. URL if available Fabian, J. J. (2020, May 14). UX in free educational content. In J. S. Doe (Chair), The case of the Purdue OWL: Accessibility and online content development [Panel presentation] Computers and Writing 2020, Greenville, NC, United States.

A downloaded software

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co.

Online discussion

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit.


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter.

Twitter profile

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from

Facebook post

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Facebook page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from

Instagram video or photo

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram.


Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR.

YouTube video or others

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube.


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED.


Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL Prime, K. (Host). (2019, March 29). For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC Studios. Executive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Range of publication). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Production company. URL Bae, P. (Executive Producer). (2017-present). The big loop [Audio podcast]. QRX.

  Other Non-printed (electronic) Sources


Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company. Loyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma mia! [Film]. Universal Pictures.

A film that could only be watched in a certain place

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)

A serial broadcasted in television

Executive Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s). Sherman-Palladino, A., Palladino, D. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). The marvelous Mrs. Maisel [TV series]. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow, Amazon Studios.

A particular episode of a television serial

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [Tv series episode]. In P. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s). Korsh, A. (Writer & Director). (2019, September 25). One last con (Season 9, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In D. Liman & D. Bartis (Executive Producers), Suits. Untitled Korsh Company; Universal Content Productions; Open 4 Business Productions.

Television broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. Central Broadcasting Service.

Television series

Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. American Broadcasting Company.

Music recording

Recording artist. (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record label. The National. (2019). I am easy to find [Album]. 4AD.

Single song or track

Recording artist. (Year of release). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album [Album]. Record label.  Dacus, L. (2018). Night shift [Song]. On Historian [Album]. Matador Records.