A title intends to describe the substance of the manuscript. The title is formulated in such a way so that it can be easily found by readers through search engines such as Google, Google Scholar, and DOAJ. Conventional titles—often comes from such research that clearly indicates the variabels, population, and the context of the research—need to be changed into more popular in interesting to the readers. Therefore, the author should find the easy finding words or phrases that represent the important concept of the manuscript. Here are some things to consider in writing an article title.

  1. Showing or conveying the main objective of the study.
  2. Describing the research findings, its analysis interpretation.
  3. Should not contain abbreviations, except for certain products that have standardized abbreviations, for example, IBM, PowerPoint, R2D2, ADDIE, and the like.
  4. Using such official terms from such field of studies, i.e. educational technology or curriculum studies.
  5. Being concise and attractive, no more than 12 words

Several references and examples in writing the academic manuscript title are as follows.

Table 3 The Example of Manuscript Titles

Curriculum change in Australia and Ireland: a comparative study of recent reforms

Education in conflict: how Islamic state established its curriculum?

Early years curriculum: funds of knowledge as a conceptual framework for children’s interest

Design and co-configuration for hybrid learning: theorizing the practices of learning space design

I still miss human contact, but this is more flexible—paradoxes in virtual learning interaction and multidisciplinary collaboration

Enhancing learning motivation of students with special needs using learning video

If we look at some examples of the manuscript's title, at a glance, we can see an overview of the manuscript content. The first title immediately shows that the article is a comparative study between countries. The second title describes a paradigm conflict in Islamic countries’ curriculum design. The third title shows the focus of the study on the early childhood curriculum, especially on directing everyday knowledge as a conceptual framework for building children's interest. The fourth title describes the direction of the article by constructing a practice-based theory in learning space design. The fifth title describes research findings in the form of a paradox in virtual learning interactions. The sixth title shows research efforts in increasing the learning motivation of students with special needs using learning videos.

Abstract and Keywords

An abstract is the essence of a manuscript that is brief, concise, and clear. Reading an abstract is a shortcut for readers to understand the substance and the whole of the manuscript. Hence, it should be composed as well as possible in order to give a clear and concise overview of the article. In IJCETS, the abstract is written in two languages; English and Indonesian, both should be writing no more than 15o words. The abstract at least comprises (1) research objective; (2) research methods; (3) results; and (4) why the findings are important, their implications, or the potential for further studies.

In scientific writing, there are several “formulas” in composing an abstract, for instance, BPMRC and IMRAD. BPMRC stands for Background, Problem, Methods, Results, and Conclusion, while IMRAD stands for Introduction, Method, Research, and Discussion. Both formulas could be applied, yet IJCETS editors suggest that the authors include at least four elements mentioned earlier.

Keywords are made up under the following conditions (1) describing the manuscript content, and (2) expressing a specific discipline or sub-discipline, mainly using terms that are widely used in the field of educational technology and curriculum studies. Below are some examples.

Table 4 The Example of an Abstract and Keywords in English

This article proposes a rationale for a transformative approach to education against the backdrop of an analysis of the current political scenario marked by neoliberalism and the effect of this ideology on educational policy and practice. The author looks at some of the intellectual influences that, in his view, continue to abet this process and the larger process of capitalist restructuring, all of which have an effect on educational policymaking and practice. What signposts should one explore for a transformative education, based on ideals of social justice, bearing this scenario in mind? The article will tentatively propose some of the ingredients for a transformative process of education and then proceed by providing a critical reflection on two â€œon the ground” projects taking place in the author’s home country.

Keywords: transformative; neoliberalism; public sphere; parent participation; workers’ education

The example in Table 4 is from Peter Mayo’s manuscript (University of Malta) entitled “A Rationale for a transformative approach to education” published in the Journal of Transformative Education 1(1), January 2003, 38-57. The following example is an abstract written in English and Indonesian. It is drawn from an article by Sri Wahyuni entitled “Pengubahan Konsep Diri sebagai Kunci Keberhasilan Pendidikan Anak Jalanan” issued in Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Jilid 20, Number 1, June 2014, pp. 27-36.

Table 5 The Example of an Abstract in English and Indonesian

This qualitative research aims at formulating a data-based theory concerning the success in educating street children. The study involved 13 street children and employed in-depth interviews, participatory observation, and documentation study in collecting the data. Constant comparative analysis of the data reveals that the success or failure in educating street children is dependent upon the development of self-concept. This should be taken into consideration in constructing a more effective and creative education model to avoid “malpractice” in handling street children.

Keywords: self-concept; education; street children

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan sebuah teori berdasarkan data yang dapat menjelaskan keberhasilan dan kegagalan pendidikan bagi anak jalanan. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian teori grounded, berlokasi di Rumah Singgah Insan Mandiri di Kecamatan Singosari Kabupaten Malang dengan 13 anak jalanan sebagai partisipan. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipatif, dan studi dokumentasi, kemudian dianalisis dengan metode analisis komparasi konstan. Penelitian ini menemukan sebuah teori keberhasilan dan kegagalan pendidikan bagi anak jalanan yang menjelaskan bahwa keberhasilan pendidikan bagi anak jalanan sangat dipengaruhi oleh konsep diri anak jalanan. Teori ini bermanfaat sebagai dasar bagi upaya penyusunan model pendidikan bagi anak jalanan yang efisien dan efektif, sehingga tidak akan terjadi malapraktik.

Kata kunci: konsep diri; pendidikan; anak jalanan

According to the example above that the two abstracts are not identical, because the author does not conduct such literal translation from English to its Indonesian version or the vice versa. He/she rewrite the English version from the Indonesian one by capturing the main feature or the substance of the abstract. Some tips when the author try to write the English version of the abstract from its Indonesian version are (1) it is not recommended to use the direct translation, and (2) don not use Google translate—or another platform—without considering the grammar, but write again using English logic which is simpler, denser, more concise that refers to the substance of the abstract.

Statistical formulas should not be inserted in the abstract, mainly for quantitative research. It also includes the findings or data analysis in the form of statistical calculations, except for simple forms such as percentages and the like.


The introduction section is written to picture the background of the theme, topic or problem being studied, thus require a lot of precise data, information, opinion, and argument to build up the narration elucidating that the topic examined is greatly essential. The data could be drawn from scientific journals, mass media, expert judgment, and others. The end of the introduction is directed to convey the research urgency, novelty, and points discussed in the manuscript. The followings are some elements to be taken into account in the introduction orderly from the beginning to the end of the introduction.

  1. Reviewing the data, information, opinions, research findings, and reviews of the previous studies relevant to the topic and focus of the manuscript.
  2. Discussing key concepts of the research focus.
  3. Reviewing the research context or focus.
  4. Writing the problem statement or the state of the art.
  5. Conveying the research objective/s in a brief description.

The five fundamental elements should be written systematically and orderly. The first and second points are called literature review and could be written simultaneously, then proceed to review the context or focus of the research, write the fourth point, and finally the fifth point. Below are some of the writing styles and sentences that authors can adapt.

Reviewing data, information, opinions, research findings, and reviews of previous studies relevant to the topic and focus of the manuscript

The discussion of data, information, opinions, and prior studies' findings intends to unveil the current trend and development in a particular discipline, mostly in a specialized sub-discipline related to the examined topics. For example, details concerning school learning such as bullying, student perception, learning motivation, teacher performance, and the like. This review becomes the basis of the state of the art.

Table 6 The Example of Explanation about Data, Information, Opinions, and Prior Studies' Findings at the Beginning of the Introduction



Providing data, information, or opinions

The ranking results published by OECD showed that the literacy skills of Indonesian students aged 10 to 15 years old are at a low level (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2018).

Giroux (1997, p. 56) argued that the United States' education is inseparable from racism, discrimination, and social injustice.

Based on the publication by the Central Bureau of Statistics/Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), there are 4.292.288 high school students in 2016 (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2016).

Comparing a source with others

A study conducted by Ridlo (2014) revealed that democratic learning is effective in enhancing the quality of the learning process, and the learning outcomes are different compared to Farchan’s (2016) research. If studied further, students and the social context studied by Ridlo and Farchan are dissimilar. ....

Strengthening arguments

In line with the notion, Miarso (2007, p. 120) also stated that educational technology has to be understood as a system involving many educational components to support learning activities and results.

The number of college students has increased for the past three years from 2014, 2015, to 2016, this indicated that interest for higher education is soaring (Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi, 2017). 

Expanding information

Rasyid (2015) discovered that bullying is not only found in schools but also in homes. Ironically, the subject of home bullying is children’s closest people.

The review of prior research in the introduction section should not just random, but should be a systematic composition by collecting topic trends or results from previous research in a few paragraphs, then comparing them with other trends from previous research in different paragraphs for instance. Therefore, before writing a review of previous research, the authors require to identify the research topic along with the topic trend and its findings. By making categorization based on topics and findings, it will be easier for authors to formulate research problems and compile the state of the art.

The discussion of previous research is a potential way to raise awareness of the problems or gaps in the theoretical domain of a discipline. Through this review, the authors will be able to identify the topic trend and issues and the prior study’s findings. As a result, issues emerging around the examined topic, including topics or sub-topics that have or have not been studied previously. This review is a starting point where authors decide to investigate an important topic for their research.

Discussing the Main Concepts of the Research Focus

In the introduction section the author should give clear illustration regarding to the main concepts or theories he/she hold, and the main concept should be the research focus. Good introduction means should contain a clear, concise, and analytic explanation of the main concept. For instance, in such manuscript that study the development of alternative education curriculum, consequently the notion of curriculum, alternative education, and alternative education curriculum should be clearly explained. Thus, it is suggested that the authors refer to the experts in such field of studies in constructing the key concepts, most of their reference works are easily accessible in books and scientific journals.

Table 7 The Example of Sentences Quoting Opinions Regarding the Key Concepts



Providing opinions

Self-regulated learning is a process involving the intended effort of a student to manage complex learning activities in achieving academic goals (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001)

Referring to the basic concept of educational technology proposed by Miarso (2007), Januszewski & Molenda (2004), and Subkhan (2016), it could be concluded that educational technology is a discipline that discusses...

Table 7 shows several expressions that are frequently used in explaining the key concepts in the introduction section such as referring to, based on, basically and many more which authors can use it properly. Furthermore, the explanation of the main concepts is put before, amid, or after the review of the previous research. The authors must be able to make a comprehensive formula from several sources containing a particular concept.

Reviewing the Research Context or Focus

Writing a research context or focus on the introduction section intends to give an overview to the readers regarding situations, phenomena, events, and specific cases being examined in the manuscript. Context or focus also departs from the review of previous research and shows specificity, uniqueness, even novelty compared to prior studies. In such research such as field studies, the contexts, for example, are in the form of a certain area, population, or a certain sample, which are different from others.

Moreover, what is meant by the focus of the research is a main concern that differ to the previous studies. For example, when researching about homeschooling curriculum the author should focusing on such object or topic that has never been studied before. In other words, it focuses on very specific things that the previous scholars and researcher have not studied it. This focus can also be perceived as a specific research topic. Some writing styles put context or focus after the review of the previous research. However, sometimes authors place it before the review. Both are fine, authors are free to select which one is the most convenient.

Writing the Research Problem or the state of the Art

Research problem comes from the review of the previous research, context or focus. It is in line with the state of the art which shows a gap of knowledge and/or gap of the practice of a phenomenon, context, or focus to be studied. Research problem is an argument indicating that something is very important to be researched, both for the opportunity to develop such field of studies and to solve the problems practically. There are at least 4 (four) important things in formulating the state of the art explained as follows. These four things could be written in one or two brief paragraphs/s.

  1. Revealing the different achievements between the previous research with the current research (topic, context, or focus).
  2. Showing such research opportunity regarding to its essential, interesting and important related to the topic, context and focus.
  3. Expressing the research novelty in terms of context, focus, and dimension.
  4. Conveying the research urgency or theoretical review.

Table 8 The Example of the State of the Art in the Introduction Section

Revealing different achievement between the ongoing and foregoing research (topic, context, or focus), the current research' novelty, and urgency

Studies conducted by Subkhan (2016), Nuryanto (2003), and Rochmat (2012) mainlyfocused on the ideological dimension of standardized education practices in higher education. Another aspect requiring further investigation related to standardized education is its effect on teaching practices. This is essential as ...

Showing a research opportunity for an essential, interesting study to do

The Indonesian Child Protection Commission indicated that our education cannot be separated from violence. The presented data also unveiled the ongoing violence in school-aged children. Some studies have been carried out, for example, Amar (2012) and Wulandari (2010) investigated the causative factors of brawls occurred in several vocational schools in Jakarta. Further, Nugroho (2003) examined brawls in several vocational schools in Semarang seen from the sociological background.

The three research counted heavily on the sociological review so that the causative factors were obtained. One interesting finding from Nugroho (2003) and Wulandari (2010) unveiled that extreme pride of school has been nurtured by school gangs. Nevertheless, this finding has not described how gangs exist in schools. Knowing the emergence process and the development of school gangs is important as an expansion of insight and consideration for the school community to respond to this phenomenon appropriately. Based on these considerations, the researchers in this article describe…...

Teachers’ performance that has not improved significantly after they get certification point out that there is a problem in such policy. The underlying factors could come from the teachers and the school environment. Some researchers have investigated the issue, they are Sudiono (2011), Wahzudik (2013), and Wardi (2014). Findings of the three studies showed the causative factors as follows (1) no one intensively escorts and accompanies the teacher in school, (2) the heavy workload is in line with changes in government policies, and (3) does not have the motivation to increase teacher self-capacity.

Based on the research findings, it needs further examination to know whether or not teacher responsibility is overlod so they feel burdened, keeping in mind that work activities will not be optimal if the workload is excessive as stated by Hamzah (2011), Suaedi (2012) and Mahfudz (2014). This article explains whether it is true that teacher workload is excessive ...

Several keywords to write the problem formulation are available in the above examples. These keywords show the existence of reviews, comparisons, and arguments for choosing a topic or research focus. The best tip to compose a rigorous research problem is reading lots of scientific articles published in reputable scientific journals, studying their characteristics, the way how the authors combine the descriptions or narration from the previous research, conduct comparative studies, and then formulate arguments about the urgency of the topic or research focus.

Stating the Research Objective and an Overview of the Manuscript

This part is the last part of the introduction. After arguing about the urgency of the research topic, then authors should convey the research objective and give an overview of the manuscript. The following are some expressions to be adopted in writing the final part of the introduction, which are partially written in the previous Table 8.

Table 9 The Example of Sentences at the End of the Introduction Section



Unraveling the research objective

Based on social problems and constraints found around schools, this article describes the school environments especially the phenomenon of selling snacks.

This manuscript exposed the development of Povtoon-based learning media at SDN 1 Sekaran, Gunungpati, and its effectivity in improving the students' learning process and results.

This study critically analyzed the policy of standardized education at colleges, mainly the lesson plan through ISO 9001:2008 which resulted in diversity.

Some of the phrases and/or sentences that can be used by the author include: based on, referring to, in line, in contrary, corroborate (for opinion), in fact, ironically, even so, therefore, thus, and the like. Several examples of these sentences show a certain emphasis, especially on data, information, opinions, which will lead to the conclusions, strengthening opinions, comparison, and leading to the research urgency. As a final note in writing the introduction section, it should be emphasized that not all literature is reviewed or written in the introduction. This can also be placed in the results and discussion section to enrich and deepen the analysis.