Systematics and Writing Style

The results and discussion section should directly answer the research question. Hence, it must be based on the research findings. If the manuscript is directed to answer or discuss one (or two) issue, then the discussion should be sufficiently focused on it without expanding into another nondescript discussion. The results and discussion can also be written following the flow of the research stages. The example is as follows.

Table 16 The Systematics of Writing in the Results and Discussion Section

Example 1: For media development research using the ADDIE model

A. Analysis
B. Design C. Development
D. Implementation
E. Evaluation
F. Constraints and discussion (part of the discussion & reflection section)

Example 2: For media development research using Research & Development (R&D) model/method

A. Data
B. Planning and Design
C. Developing prototype
D. Limited field trial
E. Field (large-scale) trial
F. Product Improvements
G. Dissemination

Example 3: The Supporting Factors of Post-Certification Teacher Performance Improvement (For evaluation research—directly to the findings ...)

A. School Environment and Carrying Capacity
B. Teacher Motivation in Improving Self-Capacity
C. Government Regulation in Improving Self-Capacity

Example 4: Standardization of Lecture Tools in Universities Using the ISO 9001:2008

A. Diverse Understandings about ISO 9001:2008-Standardized Lecture Tools
B. Variety of Lecture Tool Formats
C. The Logic Incompatibility of the Standardization Using ISO 9001: 2008 with the Constructivist and Postmodern Educational Paradigm

Example 5: The Development of Blended Learning in SMAN 1 Grobogan, Purwodadi

A. The Design of Blended Learning
B. The Quality of Blended Learning Application
C. Learning Process with Blended Learning
D. Students’ Learning Results Using Blended Learning E. Constraints and Further Potential of Blended Learning

Example 6: The Influence of Teacher Perspective towards Blended Learning on Students’ Learning Process and Results

A. Results
B. Discussion

The example previously provides two developmental studies using the ADDIE and R&D, in which the systematics of writing has been set according to the established steps of the respective method. On the other hand, non-developmental research tends to be written based on the findings to answer the proposed research questions.

Even so, authors sometimes put the results and discussion separately (see the last example). The results section only reveals the findings as such without any analysis, while the discussion focuses on explaining the analysis of findings provided upfront. This kind of style is usually found in a quantitative study. The qualitative research, adversely, rarely divide those sections but merge into one fine narration or description based on the findings to answer the research questions. The analysis is carried out all at once in its presentation without being separated into two sections.

Results and Discussion

Authors should not only put the research findings but analyze them. The most common ways are by:

  • comparing the research findings with other studies, data, or information,
  • analyzing the research findings using a particular theory, paradigm, or perspective, and
  • formulating a certain theory based on the findings (theoretical abstraction).

The comparison to other similar studies would strengthen the research findings and at the same time enrich the information.

For example, the researchers found that the learning outcomes using blended learning in class XI students of SMAN 1 Grobogan showed better changes than before. Researchers can then compare with similar research in other classes and other schools, including from different levels, whether the results show changes for the better or not. This includes things other than blended learning factors that can also improve learning outcomes but are not the focus of this research. This comparison analysis with the results of other studies will enrich and convince readers about the research findings.

Analyzing the research finding using a particular theory or paradigmatic perspective, for example using macro, meso, or micro theories, including socio-humanities which are more fluid and non-standard in nature. In the field of education studies, for instance, Piaget's theory of children's cognitive development, constructivism learning theory, Frankfrut's critical theory is used to critically analyze such social phenomenon and the like. Give an example, research findings on the causative factors of brawls in vocational students are analyzed using social identity and social groups theories. Another example is the findings regarding the school environment concerning teacher performance, which is analyzed using suc theories about motivation and social reproduction.

Meanwhile, theoretical abstraction or formulating a theory based on the research results covers either macro theory, that is general in nature and able to explain many things in various contexts, or meso as well as micro theory which tends to elucidate such contextual matters. Nevertheless, theoretical abstraction is mostly carried out by inductive research and mostly qualitative research approach. Research based on deductive logic is also possible to generate or formulating a theory, especially in experimental research. Theoretical abstraction is written by identifying the relationship between research variables, especially its role, function, position, intensity, process, and influence. Theoretical abstraction is directed to be able to explain what happens, why it happens, and how a certain phenomenon occurs logically, systematically, critically, comprehensively, deeply, and fundamentally.

Table 17 The Example of Analysis in the Results and Discussion Section

Comparing to another study

The data are in line with Ahmad’s (2013) findings in X grade that blended learning has been proven to enhance student learning outcomes. On the other hand, ...

Using a particular theory or paradigm

Seen from the theory of social reproduction (Bourdieu, 1993), the phenomenon is basically ...

Formulating a certain theory

Based on the data obtained, student-student daily interactions are more significant in shaping their mindset and characters than training or character learning in the classroom. The reason underlies this claim is ……