SOLID WASTE-SILICA COMPOSITE FOR HIGH STRENGTH AND LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL APPLICATION

M. Masturi, S. Rustad, S. Sunarno, N. Hindarto

Abstract


The solid waste composite was successfully made. Preliminary, the composite was synthesized using polyurethane as binder mixed with the solid waste using simple mixing method and then hot-pressed at at pressure of 4 metric-tons and temperature of 100C for 20 minutes. To enhance its strength, silica nanoparticles with varied content then were added in the polyurethane-solid waste mixture. From the compressive strength test, it was obtained that polyurethane-solid waste composite with solid waste volume fraction of 87.15% had optimum compressive strength of 160 MPa. Meanwhile, for silica addition with the fraction of 0.4975%, the compressive strength became 200 MPa, or increased 23% of that without nanosilica. The enhancement was also briefly confirmed from FTIR Spectroscopy where some polyurethane spectra shifted small due to silica addition, especially in amine and carbonyl groups as its active groups. The strength is better than of brick (80 MPa), shalestone (73 MPa), silstone (92 MPa) and other stones. From density measurement, the composite-produced has density about 0.7 g/cm3 that comparable to Jati (Tectona grandis) and Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla) having densities about 0.8 g/cm3 and 0.7 g/cm3 respectively. Therefore, this composite is very adequate for building material application to compete the woods.

Komposit sampah sudah berhasil dibuat. Mula-mula, komposit disintesis dengan menggunakan poliuretan sebagai pengikat yang dicampur dengan sampah melalui metode pencamnpuran sederhana (simple mixing), kemudian dihot-press pada tekanan 4 metric ton dan suhu 100C selama 20 menit. Untuk meningkatkan kekuatan mekaniknya, nanopartikel silica dengan berbagai komposisi ditambahkan dalam campuran poliuretan-sampah. Dengan menggunakan uji kekuatan tekan, didapatkan komposit poliuretan-sampah dengan fraksi volume sampah sebesar 87,15% memiliki kekuatan tekan sebesar 160 MPa. Selanjutnya, dengan penambahan silica sebesar 0,4975% (v/v) kekuatan tekan komposit menjadi 200 MPa, atau meningkat sebesar 23% dibandingkan komposit tanpa silica. Peningkatan ini juga dikonfirmasi melalui FTIR Spectroscopy yang menunjukkan adanya pergeseran kecil pada puncak spektra poliuretan akibat penambahan silica, utamanya pada gugus fungsi amina dan karbonil. Kekuatan mekanik komposit ini lebih baik daripada batu bata (80 MPa), batuan shale (73 MPa), batuan siltstone (92 MPa) dan beberapa jenis batuan yang lain. Dengan menggunakan uji kerapatan didapatkan komposit ini memiliki massa jenis 0,7 g/cm3, setara dengan kayu Jati (Tectona grandis) dan Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla) yang memiliki massa jenis masing-masing 0,8 g/cm3 dan 0,7 g/cm3. Ini menunjukkan komposit yang dihasilkan sangat cocok untuk diaplikasikan sebagai bahan bangunan pengganti kayu.


Keywords


nanocomposite, silica, polyurethane, solid waste, compressive strength

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/jpfi.v12i1.4289

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