Profil Pemahaman Siswa SD Kelas I dalam Menyelesaikan Soal Pengurangan Bilangan Asli Ditinjau dari Perbedaan Gender

Tommy Edyson Sofyan

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mendiskripsikan profil pemahaman siswa SD kelas I dalam menyelesaikan soal pengurangan bilangan asli ditinjau dari perbedaan gender. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini terdiri dari dua orang siswa yaitu seorang laki-laki dan seorang perempuan siswa SD kelas I SD Al-Khairiyah 048 Samarinda. Penelitian dimulai dengan menentukan subjek dengan menggunakan instrumen gaya belajar dan tes IQ, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pemberian TPS dan wawancara. Pengecekan keabsahan data menggunakan triangulasi waktu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam memahami soal, subjek laki-laki maupun perempuan dapat membaca soal dengan baik dan mampu mengaitkan skema yang dimilikinya dengan lambang bilangan serta simbol-simbol yang ada. Pada langkah ini kedua subjek memiliki pemahaman relasional. Dalam menyusun rencana, subjek laki-laki maupun perempuan menyusun rencana berdasarkan aturan yang sudah ada dan menyusun rencana berdasarkan aturan yang sudah dihafal tetapi tidak mengetahui mengapa aturan tersebut dapat digunakan. Pada langkah ini kedua subjek memiliki pemahaman instrumental. Kedua subjek memiliki pemahaman yang berbeda dalam melaksanakan rencana, subjek laki-laki melaksanakan rencana sesuai pada tahap menyusun rencana dan menjelaskan alasan mengapa langkah-langkah penyelesaian dapat diterapkan, dalam hal ini subjek memiliki pemahaman relasional. Sementara itu subjek perempuan hanya melaksanakan rencana sesuai pada tahap menyusun rencana saja, dalam hal ini subjek memiliki pemahaman instrumental. Pada tahap memeriksa kembali, menunjukkan bahwa kedua subjek memeriksa kembali jawaban yang diperoleh, selain dengan cara melihat jawaban juga dengan melakukan perhitungan kembali. Pada tahap ini kedua subjek memiliki pemahaman instrumental.

This research is a qualitative research with descriptive data analysis that aims to describe the profile of the first class of elementary school students' understanding in solving the reduction of the natural numbers in terms of gender differences.  Understanding in this study refers to the types of understanding according to Skemp, namely understanding of relational and instrumental understanding. To achieve these objectives, the researchers conducted interviews to two students in grade I SD Al-Khairiyah 048 Samarinda, is a man and a woman who has the same learning style and IQ equivalent, based on interviews conducted problem-solving tasks. Data analysis was performed with 3 stages, namely data reduction, data presentation and conclusion. Validation of the data was obtained by using triangulation time. The results showed that in understanding the problem, the subject of men and women able to read the questions well and are able to associate with the symbol of its scheme of numbers and symbols that exist. In this step two subjects have relational understanding. In preparing the plan, the subject of men and women develop a plan based on existing rules and draw up a plan based on the rules that have been memorized but do not know why these rules can be used. In this step two subjects have instrumental understanding. Both subjects have a different understanding in implementing the plan, male subjects implement appropriate plans for developing the plan and explain the reason why the completion of the steps can be applied, in this case the subject has a relational understanding. While the female subjects only implement appropriate plans for developing the course plan, in this case the subject has an instrumental understanding. At the stage of checking back, indicates that both subject to re-examine the answers obtained, other than by seeing the answer also to perform recalculation. At this stage both subjects have an understanding instrumental.

Keywords

Pemahaman, Penyelesaian Soal Pengurangan Bilangan Asli, Gender

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