Profil Penalaran Proporsional Siswa SMP dalam Memecahkan Masalah Matematika Berdasarkan Gaya Kognitif Sistematis dan Intuitif

Akhmad Faisal Hidayat, Siti Maghfirotun Amin, Yusuf Fuad

Abstract

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan profil penalaran proporsional siswa SMP dalam memecahkan masalah matematika berdasarkan gaya kognitif sistematis dan intuitif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di kelas IX SMP Al-Muslim Sidoarjo pada tahun ajaran 2016/2017. Subjek penelitian ini adalah seorang siswa bergaya kognitif sistematis dan seorang siswa bergaya kognitif sistematis. Alat pengumpul data berupa Tes Gaya Kognitif (TGK), Tugas Pemecahan Masalah (TPM), Pedoman wawancara, dan alat rekam audio visual. Data penelitian diperoleh dari pemberian tugas pemecahan masalah dan wawancara sebanyak dua kali. Wawancara dilakukan untuk mengungkapkan profil penalaran proporsional dalam memecahkan masalah matematika terkait materi perbandingan. Keabsahan data diuji dengan triangulasi waktu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kedua subjek gagal membedakan masalah proporsional dan bukan proporsional pada tahap memahami masalah. Pada tahap menyusun rencana, Siswa bergaya kognitif sistematis mengelompokkan bagian-bagian yang sebanding untuk membuat persamaan. Sedangkan siswa bergaya kognitif intuitif membandingkan luas lahan pertama dan kedua, kemudian menyederhanakan perbandingannya. Pada tahap melaksanakan rencana, siswa bergaya kognitif sistematis menggunakan strategi cross product algorithm untuk menemukan solusi. Sedangkan siswa bergaya kognitif intuitif menggunakan strategi build-up method dan factor of change untuk menemukan solusi. Pada tahap memeriksa kembali, Siswa bergaya konitif sistematis dan intuitif mengecek solusi yang mereka peroleh dengan mensubtitusi masing-masing solusi ke persamaan, kemudian melihat nilai perbandingan yang dihasilkan. Jawaban benar jika nilai perbandingan dalam persaamaan tersebut sama.

This research uses descriptive qualitative approach. The purpose of this study was to describe proportional reasoning profile of junior high school student in mathematical problem solving based on systematic and intuitive cognitive style. This study was do ini class IX SMP Al-Muslim Sidoarjo in 2016/2017. One subject is systematic cognitive style and the other is intuitive cognitive style. The colect data instruments are TGK, TPM, interview guidence, and video recorder. Data were obtain from giving problem solving task and gave interview twice during the study. Interviews were do for exploration proportional reasoning profile of junior high school student in mathematical problem solving about proportional problems. The validity of the data is tested using time triangulation. The result of this research showed both of subjects failed to different the proportional problem and non-proportional problems on understanding step. On planning step, systematic student collected the same parts to make a equation. Intuitive student compared large of first field and second, and simplified it. On doing step, systematic student use cross product algorithm strategy to find solution. Intuitive student used build-up method and factor of change strategy to find solution. On overview step, systematic and intuitive student checking with substitution the solution in equation and look at the comparing values. If the comparing values are same, it means the subject got correct answer.

Keywords

Penalaran Proporsional; Pemecahan Masalah; Sistematis; Intuitif

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